The Direction of Friction for a Car Wheel

Although the car is moving towards the right, that doesn't matter. (That's a different science used to make the truck go forward when wheels turn clockwise, and it is not the topic of this question.) What matters is that what two bodies actually are interacting with each other that involve the role of friction or it's reaction. It is the lower surface of the wheels and the road. Now, the universal fact: Friction always opposes the relative motion between the two bodies who are actually interacting with each other and are experiencing either friction or it's reaction. So, since the lower surface of the wheels is moving towards left (as in the image, the wheels are rotating clockwise), therefore the friction acts towards the right.P.S. By left, I mean backward, along (parallel to) the road. By right, I mean forward, along (parallel to) the road.

• Related Questions

Turn the front wheels of a car according to the car's bezier path

I haven't digested all of your code. Consider the effect of using the center of the rear axle as the vehicle's origin and have that point ride the actual Bezier. As such, the car's forward direction is coincident with the tangent. Both of these relate to the path of a real car. The front wheels just need to always point directly toward their next-frame-location (t0.0001).If the Bezier is too "tight", the back wheels "break lose" from the pavement and the same effect occurs at the center of the front axle, instead of the back.Edit: Added control points/lines in red, as well as, first- and second-order derivatives for t0.

5. The car/wheel locations for t0.

5 are in blue.

When interpolating the car's location between magenta and cyan, also lerp the wheel rotation between magenta and cyan. The positive difference in 't' between magenta and cyan is arbitrary, since it will be updated every frame.Edit2: I use an AutoCAD addon called AutoTurn to design driveways that can accommodate fire-truck and/or semi-truck turn radii; it makes similar paths to the one shown below, in yellow. It is an extremely specific path based on the vehicle's lock-angle, wheel-base, etc., etc. It is not even remotely parametric.Interpolating using the direction between (normalizedT) and (normalizedT 0.0001) should look great

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Can I access the signal from the wheel speed sensors?

Yes, the wheel speed sensors can detect if the vehicle (or at least the specific wheel the sensor is tied to) is moving. On most vehicles you should be able to tie directly into the wheel speed sensor and detect the signal, while not causing any issues with the vehicle itself while in normal operation. The sensor itself is a standard sine wave orientation. It's either on or off and is predictable. If there is movement in the signal, there is movement in the wheel sensor and movement of the wheel which is attached to it. Depending on how old the vehicle is, it could be a two or three wire speed sensor. I believe both of them work basically the same, but the three wire sensor is going to be more accurate. It uses what is called the Hall Effect, where you have vehicle voltage as the base reading (using two of the wires), then the third wire picks up the signal. On the other side of the equation is the stator which has equidistance notches in it which pass by the sensor and causes the signal. In order to use it, you just need to figure out which is the signal wire and then tie into it to get the signal. If you have a device which can detect the Hz which is produced, you can calibrate against the speedometer or GPS device to figure out how fast the vehicle is moving

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Can I use a different diameter tire size on my current wheels?

If you have 16.5" diameter rims, and wish to retain them, then you must match the exact inner rim diameter with replacement tires.Never attempt to "get by" with a 16" or 17" tire on a 16.5 rims. Similar things were attempted for a very short while when metric diameter wheels were brought briefly to the US, and then stocks of tires vanished with the ill-conceived idea.

The answer is no, heck no, bloody heck no. Sorry. Super nasty results await anything but the correctly matched inner tire diameter. Completely unsafe! However, as the above posters mentioned, there's still availability of the old-school size scheme, albeit terribly limited. 16.

5 was an almost-medium truck size in that era that never really caught on. sigh It's either new rims (but you could do some nice aluminum mags from Tire Rack with tires quite reasonable, and keep the stock steels... or it's the dwindling choices in 16.5" tires, Sorry the news isn't better

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Why do drag race semi trucks slant to one side?

Inertia plays a small part, but because the mass of the engine and drive train is low compared to the mass of the vehicle, it is a small torque compared to the torque being transmitted through the drive shaft. You can see the drive train of a normal semi below:In this normal semi you can also see the black steel frame running from the engine mounts to the rear wheels. This solid frame provides the equal and opposite reaction torque with very little deflection or rotation. You may see 1" of suspension deflection or so when a normal semi accelerates from parked at a stop light.The green truck in the photo is likely modified for aesthetic/theater appeal. It has a modified frame to permit that extreme rotation. This modification would actually reduce acceleration performance of the dragster (since energy is wasted in the process of lifting), but the real goal of the actors (i mean drivers ;-) is to entertain the crowd and viewers

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Maximum acceleration uphill of a truck - not sure what the equations mean

Its true that the truck's acceleration does depend on the engine specifications.However, the maximum acceleration the truck can have is the same as the maximum friction of the wheels from the force of static friction. We don't want the truck wheels to slip. If it accelerates above the static friction force then the wheels will begin to slip. Without this force of friction the truck would not move at all.$$agmu_scos theta sin theta$$ is correct; plugging the values in will give you the maximum acceleration of the truck.As an additional afterthought to the problem. The fact that the maximum acceleration does not depend on mass implies that it can be said that the maximum acceleration of the truck does not depend on the number of wheels that it has. Assume a truck with 8 wheels (an APC weighing m14 tons), versus a truck with 4 wheels (a SUV weighing m21 ton), versus a bike with 2 wheels (m320 lbs); the number of wheels reduces the mass parameter used in Newton's second law by a fraction of the total. The m parameter in your equations could be written $$m m1/8$$, or $$m m2/4$$, or $$m m3/2$$ This mass parameter would still cancel out in the end, the APC, the SUV, and the Bike all would have the same maximum acceleration.

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How would a sailing ship travel on land?

If you want sixteenth century sailing ships that can transition from sea to land and sail on land, and other answers point out the benefits and difficulties of land-sailing, you need the power of magical levitation.It is noted that magic isn't forbidden in the question, so this answer will apply it as a proposed solution.Magical levitation will be effectively a ground effect similar to hovercraft, but powered by magic. The magic levitation only works wood (which sailing ships are usually made of, especially sixteenth vessels) and the ground (soil, rocks, and the other stuff land is made of). Water tends to nullify the levitation. This means it only works above the land.A sailing ship that levitate to a modest height, say, a metre or two or whatever you feel is comfortable for land-faring, levitating mariners, will be able to behave exactly like a conventional sailing ship above and on land as it were, in the same manner that it would if it was sailing the seven seas. This model doesn't require any complicated refitting of vessels when they go from to sea to and, and vice versa.

There is no need to overload your world with too many forms of magic. Introduce only this one form of magic levitation and ships can sail land and sea

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Prepare car for long distance towing

Since the car will be on a trailer there's not much that you need to do.Check the tire pressure, and fix any tires that have a leak. If the car is strapped down, depending on how you strap it, a tire loosing air could make the strap loose. This isn't likely to be catastrophic, but it's something that will be nice to avoid.If you don't live in an area with a lot of rain, you might want to make sure all the windows are tight and leak free by running through a car wash a few times. In 1600 miles you're likely to see some rain. Close the sun roof.

Other than that, make sure the car is in good running condition so it's not a stranded lump on the trailer when you get to the destination, and remember to lock the car while it's on the trailer just like you would anywhere else.Happy trails!

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Why do trucks pass each other on the highway?

I think as RoflcoptrException says, a small speed gain can make the difference.The drivers can have a huge distance to travel, and (in the EU) the rules on allowed time before breaks is strict and enforced via tachograph etc and an extra 40-50km a day can be the difference between making the truck stop and stopping in the middle of nowhere.As an example, I awoke one day with a big articulated lorry parked in a siding outside my house.

The French driver was pleasant (we gave him real coffee in a flask), he was delivering the next day to a company in the village we lived in (this was a Sunday), but was unwilling to move, even though a better place existed a couple of minutes up the road.The reason, he had hit is maximum time when he arrived overnight, and although he could move the truck if necessary, he would have to restart his break time for the tachograph, meaning a delay before returning home when he unloaded the next day.Luckily(!) for me, the siding wasn't really up to the weight of the truck (wheels started to sink into the mud), so later on (mid-afternoon) he had to make the move, and was still sitting outside the destination company the next afternoon, despite unloading at 8am.

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Looking for a real-world example illustrating that composition can be superior to inheritance closed

Technically what you are asking is impossible to be obtained; composition and inheritance are two distinct concepts when speaking about object modeling and one cannot be replaced by other. When modeling there is nothing wrong with inheritance; the real problem is when in reality you do not have inheritance and in code you have inheritance. When you just use inheritance only for the sake of code reuse you usually go wrong; here composition is a better approach. It in this scenario, that the famous GoF principle "Favor composition over inheritance" is applied, that is use inheritance when and only when you model an "is-a" relationship; it would be a pretty bad design idea to model an "is-a" relationship via composition. Also, there are many more "has-a" relationships in the real world than "is-a" relationships.On the other hand when you are not really modeling a real-world entity (software stuff) in order to obtain code reuse, composition is preferred in most of the cases. There are example that could be given here

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