Should You Have an Audiu2019s Headlamp Converter on in Ireland?

Hi, if your car is LHD then you will have to fit beam deflectors to stop them blinding incoming traffic .Should I have my Audi's headlamp converter on in Ireland?

• Related Questions

Who invented the modern computer?

The Z3 was the first modern computer and was developed by an inventor named Konrad Zuse in 1940. According to the Computer History Museum, Zuse's computer was the first fully operational stored-program electromechanical computer ever created

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How do I connect LED lights to a car battery?

Carefully. Need to know if the leds can be connected directly to 12V with out extra resistor or not. Make sure of the polarity of the leds. Are these led straps or loose leds?

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What is driving the campaign against Dominic Cummings in the UK? Is it zeal for obedience to laws and regulations, personal hatred because he works for Boris Johnson, a desire to overturn Brexit by any means, or something else entirely?

In my case, it's incredulity that the Prime Minister of the UK actively seeks the advice and guidance of a nonentity who acted like a complete bellend at the height of the corona epidemic.Nothing more, nothing less

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In which district of the Bihar Ganga enters in Bihar?

Ganga River enters into Bihar through Buxar District and exit in Bhagalpur district. The no of district situated on the bank of Ganga river in Bihar state is 12.Ram Bhajan Kumar

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What does Einstein's theory of relativity teach us?

Here you must have specified special or general relativitySpecial relativity only gives mass energy relation, length contraction, time dilation.. General theory is generalized form of special relativity theory which account the acceleration of the body

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Could Russia have a Tsar reinstalled?

Another form of dictatorship is no solution for Russia.If Russians wish to survive as a meaningfull state - time is tickinthey must conduct changes.The only way is democracy, peace & winwin partnershipa with neighbors Europe, reduce corruption, improve the environment for businesses.

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Why wasn't Kaiser Wilhelm II punished for his involvement in World War I?

Mostly because things weren't done that way at that time. ...but then, WWI was the last of the "old style" wars, while at the same time the first of the "new style" wars

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How is externality a market failure?

Externalities are really only market failures when they are negative. So if a third party that is not involved in the transaction is negatively effected by the transaction then that is a negative externality that we want to avoid because that person through no fault of their own was negatively effected by the transaction

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Why does Trump spray his face orange?

I answer this far too often. I knew Clintons makeup artist and he was masterful at a natural look. I am betting Trump has hired a has been from the TV genre that still uses Man Tan and White around the eyes like they did before HDTV

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Which country is Beirut a city of?

Beirut is the city and capital of Lebanon.Lebanon is located in the Middle East, with the Mediterranean Sea to its West, Israel to its South and Syria to its North and East.Here are some photos of Beirut (Wikipedia):.

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Who was the greater leader, Cyrus or Alexander the Great?

Alexander was a greater general and warrior, but he was always more interested in conquering new lands than in administering lands he already possessed. Thats one reason his territories broke apart as soon as he died.Cyrus was a much better monarch

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How does Pink Floyd fare against The Beatles?

Are you speaking of the original Pink Floyd with Syd Barrett or the later Pink Floyd?Easy answer, later Floyd shouldnt even be in the same sentence as the Beatles. Early Floyd, yes. In fact Piper was recorded at EMI studios at the same time as Pepper

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What if UK remained neutral during WW2?

They couldnt have, they were in the Allied powers and if the Parliment were to disband the Allied powers then out rage in France, London and the Far east colonies would be furious forcing the Brits to re make it to avoid any political schisms

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Why does Covid-19 seem to affect humans so much but not bats?

Viruses have host carriers, that are able to transmit the virus but don't get affected by the virus themselves. Examples include bats and monkeys, and even humans who can carry viruses potentially dangerous to other species

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If you play your LCD TV for 24 hours a day will it last longer?

If your TV was on 24Hrs a day, there would be a lot more wear on the screen, than the thermal expansion of turning it off a few times a day. It would be temperature cycling, which would be negligible in relation to the life of the screen and power supply

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Is it true as alleged that Aishwarya Rai had an affair with Amitabh Bachchan?

No, I don't think that this is true. Amitabh Bachchan is very respected actor. Throughout his long career, he has maintained his clean image. Hugging your daughter in law doesn't show any such relationship.

So, please stop these rumors about him.

For now we should hope that he gets recovered from COVID-19

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Why do people hate KCR?

Hey,Did you crack a joke??I just throw back you same question?why do people hate KCR?No Telanganaite hates KCR. As people of telangana are witnessing drastic development under his administration.Nevertheless,some opponent party's(not all) are trying to defame him.

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How did Benjamin "Bugsy" Siegel die?

While he was sitting in his home in Las Vegas, someone shot him through the window.The case was never solved, but its always been assumed he was killed by mobsters whod lost money investing in his resort

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What are my chances of dying of COVID 19?

Worldwide, based on current figures, about one in 40,000. For comparison, the probability of dying from tuberculosis is about ten times higher. And this despite the fact that TB is preventable and treatable, whereas Covid-19 is not.

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What was former German Kaiser Wilhelm's opinion of Hitler and the Nazis?

KAISER WILHELM SPEAKS ABOUT HITLER 1938,KAISER WILHELM THOUGHTS ABOUT ADOLF HITLER,1938 OPINIONS EXPRESSED BY KAISER WILHEM CONCERNING HITLER,WHAT DID KAISER WILHEM THINK ABOUT HITLER - Article Preview - Old Magazine Articles

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Do people in the US have reasons to distrust the government?

The fear of tyranny must always exist. And young people please listen. Socialism is tyranny. Communism is tyranny. Contrary to what your high school and college professors indoctrinate you with. I believe the founding fathers uttered such words about tyranny

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Why did Secretary of State Tillerson call President Trump a moron?

A little more context came across my newsfeed this morning. Apparently, the comment came shortly after Trump declared that we should increase our nuclear arsenal 10-fold.I will destroy Washington DC unless you give me 1 quintillion dollars.

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What amount of resistance do I need to lower the voltage from a 9V battery to an LED? How do I calculate it? The LED is about 2V.

In general, a voltage regulator followed by a resistor is used to power a LED from a 9V battery. Answering your question, the resistance depends on the max. current from the 9V battery (Use simple Ohms law).

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Why did Socrates die the way he did?

He did not commit suicide. He was arrested because of what he was doing (even though there was nothing wrong with it according to Greek law) and was executed. He was forced to drink a poison in his cell

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What if Germany won the First World War?

Then youll have to give your loyalty to Kaiser Whilhelm the Second and all his heirs and successors. Get used to sausage and suarkraut washed down by litres of beer. You will have fun and you will have fun according to the rules.

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How do you get over a guy that leads you on?

Try these songs for a clue:::: smiling faces" - by undisputed truth/ everybody plays the fool" - by the Spinners/ gonna get over you" - by France joli/ you gonna make me love somebody else" - by Jones girls- Utube

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Did dropping the atomic bomb on Hiroshima really end WW2?

No. The fire bombs on Tokyo killed more people than the atomic bombs. The Japanese feared the USSR more than USA. So, they surrendered to USA before USSR could overrun Japan.

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Is it true that leaders are born, not made? Can some learn leadership skills?

Leaders are made, not born! It is the path of life, the purpose they find, the mission they define for themselves and the effort each individual puts into understanding their potential and impact on others and into learning how to master themselves

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Is it possible to fully disassemble Obamacare by a Republican President and the Congress?

Is it possible? Absolutely. That is, if they manage to get the numbers.But is it feasible? Absolutely not. That is, unless the Republicans want to commit themselves to political suicide and don't care about being reelected

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If you could remove one politician from your self-identified political party, who would it be and why?

Well I have absolutely no idea why my party continues to support Senator Al Franken after the sexual harassment accusations - We should at least demand his removal from the US Senate.Wait . We did?And he is no longer in the Senate?Never mind

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Is Winston Churchill's revered place in history deserved?

No. Churchill was a dictator and bipolar alcoholi. He sent 1,000s of men to their death in Gallipoli, turned killers loose in Ireland and called the Black and Tans . They murdered the Irish. His whole history is of violence,genocide and murder.

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Which factors are responsible for the fall of India's GDP growth rate to 4.5%?

The ONLY reason is that where there is social conflict (created by Modi), there is uncertainty. So consumers are not buying because they are unsure of theie continued income; business not investing because there is no demand and banks sitting with cash have no one to lend to

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What did Carthage think of the Phoenicians?

Who knows! They are all dead now and as far as we can tell, the Phoenicians didnt have a literary culture (and if they did, it all went up in smoke)

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What would happened if Danzo never been on the wrong path?

All the Uchiha would not have died, Sasuke could have been raised by his brother andSai would not have extreme powers. Shisui would not have died.Things would be better

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Were famines common in Russia before the USSR?

Large scale famines occurred quite regularly in Russian Empire. Usually at least once for every 78 years resulting around 100200 000 deaths each time.After the revolution they started to happen twice as often and resulted at least 10 times more deaths. This went on until WW2.

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Can you connect a piezo buzzer directly to a battery, or do you need to have a resistor in the circuit?

Piezo buzzers come either with a driver circuit or without. If it has a driver circuit, just supply the required voltage, no resistor needed. If it is just the piezo element, then you need a driver circuit, maybe it could be an Arduino, or a 555 timer, or just a transistor rc oscillator.

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If RCOM insolvency is approved, what happens to the shares?

In this event that RCOM declares bankruptcy, the company's shareholders may be entitled to a portion of the liquidated assets, depending on how many shares they hold and how much liquid assets are left over. However, the stock itself will become worthless, leaving shareholders unable to sell their defunct shares

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What are the important differences between early, middle, and late medieval military technology, e.g. AD 500, 1000, and 1400?

In 500 AD fighting was primarily on foot, using swords and axes, with men arrayed in Shield Walls.By 1000 AD horses were starting to be used more resulting in more open fightingBy 1400 AD the longbow and the English military archer was reaching its peak of effectiveness

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Why is it that the people who created C (Dennis Ritchie) and C (Bjarne Stroustrup) are not as famous as they should be?

Everybody who programs or used to program in C knows about Dennis Ritchie, and everyone who programs or used to program in C (except for MS variety) knows about Bjarne Stroustrup.You cannot expect a person who doesn't know what C is to care about who invented it

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How often do you usually get to see BTS?

never BTS like many other kpop groups never come to my city, well BTS do but only for the Billboard awards they dont do fan meeting or concerts here :( I hope this answered ur question :)

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What differences did you observe in PUBG mobile and PUBG PC?

1.Gameplay(PC Version is far more realistic)2.Graphics (This one is a no brainer, PC's graphics are far more superior than any current gen SOC can render)3.Cost (While PUBG is free on the mobile version, it's not on the PC )/Note-Microtransactions Exist Everywhere!.

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Why didn't the Eastern Front of World War I end in a stalemate, as the Western Front did?

You are correct in that both fronts collapsed. Except in the East it was the Russian front which collapsed. In the West the front did not end in a stalemate either. In 1918 Germany was on the verge of revolution because of four years of war

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Did Draco Malfoy have a crush on Hermione Granger?

Draco Malfoy doesn't like Hermione Granger in the books or the movies but many fans(including myself) ship them (their ship name is dramione)for various reasons. They are not canon but are loved

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Which one is correct: "a cow is a useful animal" or "the cow is a useful animal"?

It is very simple, when you say a cow, it means only a cow for the indefinite article, but when you say the cow it means that all the cows therefore The cow is a useful animal is correct

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Is Donald Trump's election Obama's failure?

Obamas failures are so numerous where does one begin??But certainly Americans being Fed up with a bloated Federal government trying to regulate every aspect of our lives.that ones Barrack for sureCertainly contributed to a DJT victory!

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How long can I leave my plasma TV unplugged without losing it? It has been about eighteen months.

Plasma TVs, despite the myths, do not lose any "gases." You can leave it unplugged for as long as you want, as long it is in a place without extreme cold, heat, or humidity

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What political party has better economic policies, Democrats or Republicans?

During FDRs new deal it was the Democrats. But nowadays, neither. Obama COULD have let the Bush tax cuts expire, instead he made them PERMANENT.America is doomed as long as either party keeps getting into power. I would give them a century TOPS.

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What is Donald Trump's political agenda?

Conan: To crush your enemies. See them driven before you. And to hear the lamentations of their women.That's the message he delivers to his base. But he uses this message to glorify himself.

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The New Technology of OLED  5g TV Will Be a Turning Year for the Color TV Market in 2020
The New Technology of OLED 5g TV Will Be a Turning Year for the Color TV Market in 2020
As the only truly mass-produced product in the next generation display technology roadmap, OLED is ushering in a "highlight moment" - although the sales growth in 2019 is limited, the joining of Huawei and Xiaomi is shaping a new image of "OLED".The killer mace of Internet brands?Recently, South Korea reported that LG display will supply OLED panels to Huawei, and the two companies are negotiating the supply. It is reported that this will be an emerging "TV" with 5g function.Lenovo thinks that the 5g package of the three traditional telecom operators has been officially launched in China; The fourth 5g license has Zhao Jingchun, chairman of China Radio and television. At the recently held world 5g conference, it was revealed that China Radio and television will promote 5g business for individuals next year. Huawei's smart screen series products will receive a "completely different product form upgrade" in 2020, which is a high probability event.It is also reported that emerging TV manufacturers Vizio and Xiaomi plan to use OLED panels next year to enter the OLED TV market. It is even reported that Xiaomi has signed a supply agreement with LGD for OLED display panels next year.If the radio and television 5g network is commercial, a batch of 5g TVs must be listed before. This is a "great opportunity" for communication enterprises and Internet enterprises to enter the color TV market. Industry experts believe that not only mobile phone companies that have "news" at present, but also other mainstream mobile phone manufacturers may launch 5g TV next year.In this context, OLED products with continuous tight supply of display panels will be particularly popular: just as OLED used to be synonymous with high-end in the mobile phone market. 5g color TV market, this scene may accelerate. In particular, considering that the new capacity of OLED panel supply of LGD in 2020 is concentrated on the 8.5 generation line in Guangzhou, there is no reason for domestic brands not to "get the month first".Therefore, 5g OLED, as the killer mace of the color TV industry in 2020, especially the mobile communication and Internet brands, has a sufficient "value foundation".Reshape the value chain of color TV, new brand new technologyAt present, the pattern of the domestic color TV industry, in addition to Xiaomi's great success in market share and sales scale by relying on low price and high quality, the traditional disk is still not much different from that 10 years ago."Among more than 10 innovative color TV brands, only Xiaomi is still active in the front line!" this is a true portrayal of Internet color TV entrepreneurs in the past few years. In this regard, industry experts believe that this is mainly because the "new brand" has no "substantive technological breakthrough" except "image, price and more dependence on e-commerce"—— The old routine of price war has also brought financial pressure under huge losses.The biggest feature of 5g OLED combination is the "hardware technology" which is very different from the traditional mainstream LCD TV.Wu Zhanghao, vice president of LG display and Minister of TV business, predicts that the sales of OLED TVs in China will reach 300000 400000 units in 2019, and the sales of OLED TVs in China is expected to reach more than 1 million units in 2020 - this product with short supply and growth is a good helper for the new brand to "create unique" technology competition value.On the other hand, 5g TV technology is bound to create a new concept of "cognition" between traditional TV brands and mobile phone and other communication enterprises. As a global leader in 5g technology, Huawei obviously has outstanding advantages in all aspects, especially in the fields of 5g signal processing antenna, chip, codec and so on. Industry insiders believe that the technical core capabilities of 5g TV and Huawei smart screen will be improved across dimensions."The new round of communication brand TV is very different from the previous Internet concept brand: because this round of new brand entry has 5g, OLED, fan aiot ecology and more hard core content."The battle for high-quality resources begins. Should the color TV industry changeFacing the upcoming 5g OLED color TV war in 2020, what is the biggest variable? The answer is the battle for upstream resources.On the one hand, the supply of OLED TV panels is always insufficient, which greatly limits the improvement of OLED market sales. For example, the data show that in the third quarter of this year, Samsung Electronics sold 1.16 million QLD TVs worldwide, a year-on-year increase of 520000 and a month on month increase of about 70000. Similarly, as a high-end TV, LG OLED TV sold 1.06 million units in the first three quarters, an increase of only 1%.On the other hand, the supply of 5g related chips and other products is also in the "initial stage". Unlike 4G new products and system products, high, middle and low-end gears are fully supplied. In 2019, the layout of many mobile phone brands on 5g mobile phones actually received the restriction that the chip is not in place. For example, apple is a typical example.Therefore, in the expectation of tight supply, Huawei Xiaomi seizes the new technology of OLED 5g TV, which has the effect of "dimensionality reduction and attack on traditional brands". Industry experts believe that 2020 will be an extraordinary "turning year" for the color TV market!
How to Judge the Watts of LED Lamp Beads? Differences Between LED Beads and Patches
How to Judge the Watts of LED Lamp Beads? Differences Between LED Beads and Patches
Abstract: LED beads have the advantages of small volume, low power consumption and long service life. They are widely used in the decoration of lamps and lanterns in our life. This paper mainly introduces how to judge the watts of LED beads? The difference between LED beads and patches.Characteristics of LED beads1. Voltage: the LED bulb uses a low-voltage power supply, and the power supply voltage is between 2-4v, which varies according to different products, so it is driven by a higher voltage power supply; Safer power supply, especially suitable for public places;2. Current: the working current is 0-15ma, and the brightness becomes bright with the increase of current3. Efficiency: the energy consumption is 80% less than that of incandescent lamps with the same light efficiency.4. Applicability: it is very small. Each unit led chip is a 3-5mm square, so it can be prepared into devices of various shapes and is suitable for changeable environment.6. Response time: the response time of incandescent lamp is millisecond and that of LED lamp is nanosecond.7. Environmental pollution: no harmful metal mercury.8. Color: changing the current can change color. The LED can easily adjust the energy band structure and band gap of the material through chemical modification to realize multi-color luminescence of red, yellow, green, blue and orange. For example, the red LED at low current can turn orange, yellow and finally green with the increase of current.Classification of LED beads1. In line low-power specifications include: straw hat / helmet, round head, concave, oval, square (2 * 3 * 4) bullet head, flat head, (3 / 5 / flat head / bread type) piranha, etc.2. SMD patches are generally divided into (3020 / 3528 / 5050, which are front emitting) / 1016 / 1024, which are side emitting light sources.3. High power LEDs can not be classified into chip series. Their power and current use are different, and their photoelectric parameters are very different. If a single high-power LED light source is not equipped with a heat dissipation base (generally hexagonal aluminum base), its appearance is not much different from that of ordinary patches. The high-power LED light source is circular, and the packaging method is basically the same as that of SMD patches, but it is essentially different from SMD patches in service conditions / environment / effect.Differences between LED beads and led patchesThe LED bulb and the core inside the LED patch are the same. The angle of the bulb can be very small (the light is relatively concentrated and far, but the irradiation range is limited). The general angle of the patch is relatively large. Supplement: the lamp bead has high power and the patch has low power.1. The power of LED beads is different. High power LED lamps generally use 1W high-power LED beads, 1-3W coexistence high-power LED beads and cob high-power. The maximum power of a single LED of high-power lamp bead can be more than 200W. Low power LED lamps generally use SMD lamp beads, mainly including 5050 lamp beads, each 0.2W, 3528 lamp beads, each 0.06w, 3014 lamp beads, each 0.1W, 5630 lamp beads, each 0.5W, 5730 lamp beads, each 0.5W.2. Different costs from the perspective of product cost, the cost of high-power LED beads is higher than that of small power. First, the cost of high-power LED itself is higher. Second, high-power LED should be added with aluminum heat sink, and low-power can meet the requirements as long as ordinary circuit board and natural heat dissipation are used.3. Different LED lamps are used. High power LED is basically used in products with high requirements for light source per unit area, such as LED ceiling lamp, LED projection lamp, LED bulb lamp, street lamp, etc. Low power LED is basically used in products with less patch area, poor heat dissipation and low requirements for light emission per unit area, such as LED ceiling lamp, LED fluorescent lamp, LED panel lamp, LED lamp strip, etc.How to judge the watts of LED lamp beads?Low power (such as 5mm straw hat, 5mm condenser, 3528 package, etc.), about 0.06w.Medium power (such as 8mm straw hat, 10mm straw hat, 5050 encapsulated, etc.) 0.2w-0.5w.High power includes 1W, 3W, 5W, 10W... 100W.Articles related to LED lamp beads:What are the classifications of LED beads? What are the types of LED beadsDetailed description of LED lamp bead parameters and selection skills of LED lamp beadsLed bead model brightness ranking_ How to fix the LED light when it doesn't workDetailed explanation of calculation method of LED bulb resistance
It Is Reported That Apple Plans to Launch MAC Equipped with Mini LED Screen This Year
It Is Reported That Apple Plans to Launch MAC Equipped with Mini LED Screen This Year
According to the supply chain News quoted by DIGITIMES website in Taiwan, China, Apple plans to launch the MacBook Pro with mini LED screen in the second half of this year. The frame is greatly narrowed, with a total of 14 inch and 16 inch versions. Laser Optoelectronics in Taiwan will become the exclusive supplier of mini LED backlight unit, and quanta computer will be responsible for the assembly of notebook.The disclosure is completely consistent with the prediction of Guo mingpeng, a famous analyst before. Previously, he said that the new 14 inch and 16 inch MacBook Pro will be launched in the second half of this year, including: equipped with a brighter Mini LED screen and apple M-series chips; Flat edge design similar to iPhone 12 at the top and bottom; Add more interfaces, including HDMI interface and SD card reader interface; Magnetic MagSafe charging has also returned; Cancel touch bar and use the traditional physical key; With the heat pipe design, the performance is stronger.Mark gurman of Bloomberg also confirmed the details mentioned above, further strengthening the credibility of the DIGITIMES and Guo Mingyu reports.We can also see the changes in the hardware product line from the size changes: in 2019, the 16 inch MacBook Pro will replace the 15 inch MacBook Pro, so the new 14 inch model may replace the current 13 inch MacBook Pro, and the repeated molds have finally been replaced.Last year, apple put M1 chips on three different MAC products: 13 inch MacBook Pro, MacBook Air and mac mini. In addition to the inherent fit between the light and thin MacBook Air and the low-power chip M1, both macbook pro and mac mini have some thermal redundancy, and the fan doesn't even bother to rotate a few more times.A more powerful Apple chip is imminent. But a good horse with a good saddle, I'm afraid chip updates alone can't mobilize the enthusiasm of old users to change machines. A significant change needs to be made in the overall hardware, and the above disclosure just proves this. I believe that the whole series of MAC products will be replaced this year and next, just like apple transferred from power PC to Intel x64.Apple will launch the iPad pro with mini LED screen next month to test the maturity and reliability of the MacBook Pro, so that Mac users can truly experience the biggest upgrade in six years.Original title: don't buy a MacBook yet! Apple has a big update this year!The source of the article: WeChat official account: ZEALER subscription number, welcome to add attention! Please indicate the source of the article.
Typical Driving Scheme of High Brightness White LED
Typical Driving Scheme of High Brightness White LED
1 PrefaceDue to the increasingly serious energy crisis in the world, light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been highly valued as a high-efficiency light source. White LEDs have been widely used not only in the backlight light sources of mobile phones, PDAs and LCD TVs in consumer electronics, but also in public transport signal signs, industrial communication lighting systems Automobile lamps and lanterns and ordinary industrial and civil lighting with huge consumption will also be widely used. As a light source, the advantages of LED are mainly reflected in three aspects: energy saving, environmental protection, longevity and durability. Firstly, in theory, the energy consumption of LED is only 10% of that of incandescent lamp and 50% of that of fluorescent lamp; In terms of service life, led uses solid light, which is shock-resistant, impact resistant and not easy to break. The expected service life can reach 100000 hours. In terms of environmental protection, since mercury and other easy pollutants are not used in the production process, the waste can be recycled without pollution.A key technology in LED application is to provide power supply or driving circuit suitable for its characteristics. In lighting applications, today's high brightness white LEDs have a working current of 150mA 3a and a conduction voltage drop of 3 5V to provide higher brightness. Due to the increase of power, the efficiency of traditional resistance current limiting, linear regulation and charge pump driving method can not be further improved due to the limitation of principle. PWM switching power DC converter has become the preferred LED driving solution. This paper presents a controller chip for boost LED driving circuit. Considering that led is a typical current type device, the fluctuation of current will affect its luminous efficiency and color, and the current exceeding the rated value will damage its service life and reliability. Therefore, current mode control has obvious advantages in LED driving. Moreover, with the development of PWM control technology, its current control mode has also developed a variety of modes. Compared with the average current control mode with more complex loop design and the hysteresis current control mode with more electromagnetic interference problems, the peak current control mode has simpler loop design and can effectively limit the current.Considering the above factors, the chip adopts the peak current control mode and integrates the slope compensation circuit to make it have a wide voltage working range (3 16V). This paper first gives the modeling and loop compensation design of the whole control system, and then designs the digital dimming function module based on the traditional peak current mode controller module according to the requirements of LED dimming. The third part introduces the control function circuit without sampling resistance in the chip, which directly samples the current through the drain source voltage of the power switch, that is, RDS (on), reduces the loss on the sampling resistance, and can effectively improve the efficiency of the system. Finally, the system structure, layout and test results under various modes of the control chip are given.2 system modeling and loop compensation designThe boost LED driving circuit and control loop diagram are shown in Figure 1. The load LED current is sampled through the resistor RS1 and input to the voltage error amplifier (EA). The output of the error amplifier is output through the compensation network as the reference of the current peak comparator. The resistor RS2 samples the current on the switch S1 and inputs it to the positive end of the comparator. Ramp is the slope compensation current in peak current control. The clock signal CLK determines the switching frequency and the opening of the switch tube. When the current signal is greater than the set threshold, the output of the comparator becomes higher and triggers the logic circuit to turn the switch tube off.Figure 1 control diagram of boost LED driving circuitA small signal model circuit as shown in Fig. 2 can be established. For the boost power stage circuit, two important transfer functions GVD (s) and GID (s) of the original power stage can be obtained by using the state space average method, and the equivalent power stage transfer function AP (s) of the output voltage to the command current signal can be derived according to the model in the figure.Figure 2 small signal model of peak current mode controlWhere FM = 1 / mats, FV = D '2Ts / 2L, Ma is the slope of slope compensation current, l is the filter inductance, TS is the switching cycle, and D is the steady-state duty cycle. Consider the transfer function T (s) of the whole loop;The amplitude phase frequency curve of the loop transfer function before compensation is shown in Fig. 3. The system has two poles (P1, P2), a zero Z in the left half plane (caused by the output capacitance ESR) and a zero Z1 in the right half plane. It should be pointed out here that if there is no introduction of the current feedback control system with slope compensation circuit, the output LCR network determines that the loop system is a system with high Q value, The current feedback greatly reduces the Q value of the system, but the zero point in the right half plane will increase the crossing frequency and make the phase margin worse. The compensation method that can be adopted is to add a compensation network with single zero point and single pole, as shown in Fig. 3, and the expression of GC (s) is,Fig. 3 system open loop frequency response before and after compensationZ2 is used to compensate the pole P1. The pole of the coordinate origin can improve the loop gain of low frequency to reduce the DC steady-state error. P3 offsets the amplitude increase brought by Z1 and suppresses the noise close to the open frequency. The final crossing frequency fc is set at about 1 / 10 of the switching frequency. The simplest compensation method can also use the unipolar compensation network. In order to ensure the phase margin, it will bring disadvantages, that is, the bandwidth of the loop will be smaller and the dynamic response of the system will be slower. The practical boost LED driving circuit is modeled and the simulation results in MATLAB (as shown in Figure 4). From the simulation results, the phase margin of the loop near the crossing frequency is greater than 45 ° under this slope current and compensation network design, and the system is stable, which is basically consistent with the results calculated by the formula.Fig. 4 matlab simulation results
Hurry! What Should I Do If the Solar Lithium Road Lamp Is Not Installed Correctly
Hurry! What Should I Do If the Solar Lithium Road Lamp Is Not Installed Correctly
Solar LED street lamps will be installed incorrectly if they are not paid attention to. Incorrect installation will make it impossible for solar street lamps to be installed normally. What should we do? Can we say that after working hard to install lithium solar street lamps for many hours, we have to install solar street lamps again?The installation of solar street lamps is very simple. If the lamps can not be turned on normally after actual operation according to the operation manual of technical professional manufacturers, the following types of installation may be incorrect.1. There are too many obstructions in the area where solar LED street lamps are installedSolar street lamps are powered by solar power stations. In broad daylight, photovoltaic panels digest and absorb solar energy, and then convert solar energy into electromagnetic energy and store it in lithium batteries. At night, lithium battery provides power supply system for LED lamps to achieve the goal of lighting lamps. Therefore, natural light cannot irradiate the photovoltaic panel or the length of time on the photovoltaic panel determines the high charging efficiency of lithium battery. If there are engineering buildings, flowers, trees, cables and other barriers around the area where lithium solar street lamps are installed, it will endanger all the normal digestion, absorption and application of light energy by the photovoltaic panel, resulting in insufficient power, Unable to meet the lighting requirements at night. There are obstructions around the solar street lamps, and even some photovoltaic panels will be blocked, and the temperature will be raised too fast, resulting in some hot and burning the photovoltaic panels immediately.Solution:When it is impossible to bypass the barrier, the house orientation of the photovoltaic panel can be adjusted to ensure that the photovoltaic panel is facing the direction without any barrier, and the sunlight exposure time shall not be less than 8 hours.2. The house orientation of solar LED road light volt panel is incorrectWe all belong to the map of the northern hemisphere. The photovoltaic panels for installing solar road lamps in China should be installed in the direction of sufficient light, otherwise the photovoltaic panels will not be able to digest and absorb solar energy, so as to reduce the high efficiency of battery charging. Many on-the-spot workers always think that symmetrical installation is appropriate. In fact, it is a common incorrect installation. The orientation of solar panel houses on both sides is relative. One side is appropriate and the other side must be incorrect.Solution:First clarify the orientation of the house, and then the column, China to the south. Overseas needs to look at the map belonging to the northern hemisphere or the eastern hemisphere. Let's say another thing.3. Solar LED road light volt panel is placed in the room for battery chargingSome people will install lithium solar street lamps in buildings or parking sheds to facilitate daily access or parking.Although this area is bright in the daytime, the sunlight exposure level can not meet the power consumption requirements for solar street lamps to maintain all normal lighting lamps. For a long time, it will continue to cause damage to rechargeable batteries.Solution:To ensure sufficient sunlight exposure of photovoltaic panels, the separation installation method of indoor daylighting and outdoor battery charging can be adopted to move the photovoltaic panels outdoors.4. There is another light source beside the solar street lampLight control switch and time control are one of the advantages of lithium solar street lamps. It can operate lights on and off in polar days and nights according to seasonal changes without human factors. However, if there are other light sources on the side, the function of the light control switch will fail, resulting in the failure of solar road street lamps to turn on at night.Solution:If it is impossible to remove the influence of other light sources, the light control switch mode can be set to time control mode.To sum up, some solar street lamps are not installed correctly and can be modified after installation, but some are more complicated. Therefore, before installing lithium solar street lamps, we must pay attention to the relevant common problems, select the right professional manufacturer of solar street lamps, and the professional manufacturer of solar street lamps will provide technical services!!!
Experts Teach You How to Select LED Lighting Driver Chip
Experts Teach You How to Select LED Lighting Driver Chip
LED lighting has been developed by leaps and bounds in the near future. As a green and clean light source, LED has been widely recognized. LED light source has the advantages of long service life, energy saving, simple and convenient application and low cost, so it will be widely used in home lighting. According to the survey and statistics of OSRAM optical semiconductor company in 2008, the global annual shipment of home lighting lamp holders is about 50 billion.The technology of LED light source is becoming more and more mature, and the luminous lumen per watt is growing rapidly, which promotes its decreasing price year by year. Taking 1W LED light source as an example, the price in the spring of 2008 is one-third of that in the spring of 2006, and will drop to one-quarter of that in 2006 in the spring of 2009.The massive market of LED green lamps and the continuous and stable growth demand for several years will be a super tsunami in the consumer electronics market after VCD, DVD, mobile phone and MP3 in the integrated circuit industry!LED lamps are widely recognized for their superior performance of high energy saving, long life and environmental protection.1. LED high energy saving: DC drive, ultra-low power consumption (single tube 0.03 1W), electro-optic power conversion is close to 100%, and the same lighting effect saves more than 80% energy than traditional light sources.2. Led long life: LED light source is called long life lamp. The solid cold light source is encapsulated with epoxy resin, and there is no loose part in the lamp body. There are no disadvantages such as easy burning, thermal deposition and fast light decay of the filament. The service life can reach 50000 to 100000 hours, which is more than 10 times longer than that of the traditional light source.3. Led benefits environmental protection: LED is a green light source with better environmental protection benefits. There are no ultraviolet and infrared rays in the spectrum, low heat, no stroboscopic, no radiation, and the waste can be recycled. There is no pollution, no mercury. It is a cold light source and can be safely touched. It is a typical green lighting source.Working characteristics of LED light sourceThe VF voltage of LED light source for lighting is very low, generally 2.75 3.8V, and if is generally 15 1400ma. Therefore, the output voltage of the LED drive IC is vfxn or vfx1, and the if maintains a constant current of 15 1400ma. LED light sources used in LED lamps include low power (if is 15 20mA) and high power (if is greater than 200mA). Low power LED is mostly used to make LED fluorescent lamp, decorative lamp and grid lamp. High power LED is used for home lighting, spotlight, underwater lamp, wall washing lamp, street lamp, tunnel lamp, automobile work lamp, etc. Power LED light source is a device driven by low voltage and high current. Its luminous intensity is determined by the current flowing through the LED. Excessive current will cause LED light attenuation, and too small current will affect the luminous intensity of LED. Therefore, the driving of LED needs to provide constant current power supply to ensure the safety of high-power LED and achieve the ideal luminous intensity. In the field of LED lighting, in order to reflect the characteristics of energy saving and long life of LED lamps, it is very important to correctly select LED Driver IC. Without good matching of driving IC, the advantages of LED lighting cannot be reflected.Requirements of LED lamps for low voltage drive chip1. The nominal input voltage range of the drive chip shall meet DC 8 40V to cover a wide range of application needs. The withstand voltage capacity should be greater than 45V. When the input is AC 12V or 24V, the output voltage of the simple bridge rectifier will fluctuate with the grid voltage, especially when the voltage is high, the output DC voltage will also be high. If the drive IC does not have a wide input voltage range, it will often be broken down when the grid voltage rises, thus burning the LED light source.2. The nominal output current of the drive chip shall be greater than 1.2 1.5A. As an LED light source for lighting, the nominal working current of 1W LED light source is 350mA, and the nominal working current of 3W LED light source is 700mA. The high-power LED light source needs more current, so the driving IC selected for LED lighting lamps must have sufficient current output, and the driving IC must work in the best working area of 70 90% of the full load output when designing the product. The driving IC with full load output current does not dissipate heat smoothly in the narrow space of the lamp, which is easy to lead to fatigue and early failure of the lamp.3. The output current of the driving chip must be kept constant so that the LED can emit light stably and will not flash. When the same batch of driver chips are used under the same conditions, the output current should be as consistent as possible, that is, the discreteness should be small, so as to ensure the effectiveness and order in the production of large-scale automatic production line. For the drive chip with a certain discreteness of output current, it must be selected by grades before leaving the factory or putting into the production line. Adjust the resistance value of the current setting resistance on the PCB board to make the constant current drive board of LED lamps consistent with the luminous brightness of similar LED light sources, so as to maintain the consistency of the final product.4. The package of the driving chip shall be conducive to the rapid heat dissipation of the driving chip die. For example, the bare chip shall be directly bound to the copper plate, and a pin shall be directly extended outside the package, so as to facilitate the rapid heat conduction directly welded on the copper foil of the PCB board (Fig. If a chip similar to 4x4mm needs to pass 300 1000mA current for a long time, it will inevitably generate power consumption and heat generation. Therefore, the physical heat dissipation structure of the chip itself is also very important.5. The anti EMI, noise and high voltage capability of the driver chip is also related to whether the whole LED lamp product can successfully pass CE, UL and other certification. Therefore, when designing the driver chip, it is necessary to select advanced topology structure and high voltage production technology.6. The power consumption of the drive chip shall be less than 0.5W, and the switching frequency shall be greater than 120Hz to avoid power frequency interference and visible flicker.In short, led green lighting promotes the development of driver chip to innovative design. LED lighting is inseparable from the driver chip, so a multifunctional LED light source driver IC is required. If AC power supply below 36V is selected for LED lamps, non isolated power supply can be considered; If 220V and 100V AC power supply is selected, isolated power supply shall be considered. The direct use of AC 100 220V driver chip has higher technical requirements and greater difficulty due to the demanding volume requirements of the application. At present, all countries are trying to develop it. The massive demand market for LED lamps gives all IC design companies a chance to succeed again. If they can make rapid transformation and produce products early, they will have a lot of opportunities to win.
LG Display CEO Promises to Double the Supply of Large-size OLED TV Panels
LG Display CEO Promises to Double the Supply of Large-size OLED TV Panels
On January 10, according to foreign media reports, Jeong Ho Young, CEO of LG display, who took office last September, recently promised that their supply of large-size OLED TV panels will double this year to about 6 million pieces.LG shows that the increase in the supply of OLED TV panels is due to the global oversupply of LCD TV panels and the decline in prices. LG shows that it has continued to lose money in the first three quarters of last year and is expected to achieve a record operating loss of 1 trillion won in 2019.In the three quarter of last year, LG began to adjust the management and business of LG. Zheng Haoyong, who was originally LG chemical CEO, transferred to LG in September last year and became CEO.From the current situation, Zheng Haoyong, the new CEO, hopes to improve the company's financial situation by expanding the production and sales of OLED panels. They have begun to shift their focus from LCD panels to OLED panels. The large-size OLED panels used in TV are one aspect of his hope to expand.Zheng Haoyong promised to double the supply of large-size OLED TV panels from 3.3 million last year to about 6 million this year at a press release before the 2020 International Consumer Electronics Exhibition in Las Vegas.In order to achieve the goal of doubling the supply of OLED TV panels this year, Zheng Haoyong revealed that their generation 8.5 plant in Guangzhou will be fully operational by March this year at the latest.While expanding the supply of OLED TV panels, Zheng Haoyong, who shoulders the important task of reversing LG's display performance, is also expanding the use of OLED panels in other fields. At this press conference, he revealed that they plan to expand the sales of OLED panels in the transportation field and supply OLED panels to automobile manufacturers and aircraft manufacturers. These manufacturers also show interest in adopting OLED panels. Zheng Haoyong also revealed at the press conference that they had begun to supply OLED panels to a global automobile manufacturer in January, and the relevant models may be launched in the second quarter of this year.
During the Electrical Inspection Do They Expect All the Switches and Outlets to Be Installed?
During the Electrical Inspection Do They Expect All the Switches and Outlets to Be Installed?
The first to answers are both correct. That said, it really depends on the individual inspector what they will actually check. The CAN check everything, but a visual inspection and a few 'spot checks' are more common1. Need 3 pronged electrical outlets.?If it is indeed an apartment building there is always the chance it has "pipe and wire" construction. In which case a ground wire could be pulled to that outlet. Not something the landlord is likely to do. To find out, open the box and see if the wires go into a pipe. If there is some space around them and they move when you wiggle them that's pipe. If they are tight to one another and do not move you are out of luck.2. How do we deal with exposed wire? They do have caps on them, but it is suggested we put a "cover" over them.?So you have empty electric boxes that used to have switches and/or outlets in them? By "caps" I assume you are talking about wire nuts? Note it's the black (or sometimes red) wires that are "hot" (and therefore dangerous) the white is neutral and green is ground. Anyways, the first [Homie D's] link in sources is for "single gang" boxes (only one outlet/switch wide.) The second is for "double gang".3. Electricity outlets not working in one room?It sounds like you are over-loading your extension cord load max capacity so its draining your capable power. You should only have one item on extension cord (like Freezer) ...it has to be a heavy type !! The outlet itself may also be burned outed already from carrying such a load. ..you could replace it if it tests out bad as well ...just food for thought...you should never extend a heavy duty appliance or big power drain item such as a inflatable pool4. GFCI outlets - can they be repaired? Are they really needed at the end of a circuit?Can GFCI outlets be taken apart and cleaned/fixed or is there something inside that fails permanently?A GFCI protects you by using a circuit board to watch the current flowing out of the hot and coming back into the neutral. If it reaches around 5mA imbalance, the breaker trips. You said yours were submerged in a flood. Just like your cell phone or computer, the flood ruined the circuitry inside. You cannot repair it yourself (assuming anyone can repair it).Replacing them is not terribly expensive, and the newer ones have a self-test mechanism.5. All GFI outlets, inside and out, are receiving no power?Hit the reset button on all the GFI's. You might have a bad outlet6. Power at the breaker not at the outlets, no GFI (that I can find)?There should be a receptacle outside the house next to the door. This one most likely will be your GFCI. Check it, and reset it if you can. If that does not work, time to bite the bullet and get a qualified electrician in to fix it. Hope this helps7. Electrical outlets installation?If the cable can be easily run from where the power is, to the new outlets then maybe a days work and material. If it is a difficult run, like time consuming and the room is full of furniture that must be moved all of a good day and maybe 2. How much depends on the local labor rates. It is not advisable to connect to the light circuit. If the adjoining rooms have outlets and they are not at maximum that might be an alternative, also what about crawl space and attic or ceilings? These are the conditions that only an onsite inspection can analyze.8. Why is it that some of my outlets are grounded and other are not?I am not an electrician but I can tell you this. When an electrician or whoever runs a line, the line usually does one side of the wall in one room and the other side of the wall of the room next to it and then can go anywhere or not. It only makes sense that the wire that runs inside of one wall service both sides of the wall. That way if you turn off a circuit, you still have power on another wall. You need to have your house grounded and it does not pass code without ground wires. The only other thing I can tell you is that if you buy a house from a realtor and they tell you it is up to code and it is not , they can be liable for bringing it up to code. All problems should be listed and given to the buyer. It is not buyer beware unless you go out on your own and buy from an individual. Good luck with it. I found that my house used the ground wire for the hot wire in places and the 220 receptacle just fell out of the wall hot. I tore out walls and ceilings and got it all redone and raised my ceilings in the process. Good luck is all I can say
Overview of Xiamen Tianma 6th Generation Flexible AMOLED Production Line Project
Overview of Xiamen Tianma 6th Generation Flexible AMOLED Production Line Project
Recently, Shenzhen Tianma announced that on August 12, 2019, the company signed the investment cooperation framework agreement for the 6th generation flexible AMOLED production line project with Xiamen Torch High tech Industrial Development Zone Management Committee and Xiamen Tianma, a wholly-owned subsidiary. The company plans to designate Xiamen Tianma and the investor designated by Xiamen municipal government to jointly fund the establishment of a joint venture project company, The "6th generation flexible AMOLED production line project" is invested and constructed by the joint venture project company in Xiamen.On December 20, 2019, Xiamen Tianma signed the joint venture agreement on the 6th generation flexible AMOLED production line project with the investors designated by Xiamen municipal government, international trade industry, Jinyuan Industry, Xiamen Xingma and Xiangyu Group. The joint venture parties agreed to invest and establish a joint venture project company in Xiamen to build a 6th generation flexible AMOLED production line project that processes 48000 flexible display substrates a month, The total investment is 48 billion yuan.Overview of the 6th generation flexible AMOLED production line projectCompany name: Xiamen Tianma Display Technology Co., Ltd. (subject to the approval of the market supervision and administration department)Registered capital: 2.7 million yuanProject Name: 6th generation flexible AMOLED production line projectTotal investment of the project: 48 billion yuan, of which the registered capital is 27 billion yuan; The difference between the total investment of the project and the registered capital of the joint venture project company is RMB 21 billion, and the joint venture project company applies for a loan from the bank.Project construction content: build the 6th generation flexible AMOLED production line in Xiamen, with a design capacity of 48000 flexible display substrates per month.Purpose of investment project1. AMOLED flexible display products have broad market prospectsAMOLED flexible display has the advantages of high contrast, fast response, ultra light and thin, low power consumption, flexible and folding display, outstanding product performance, and will continue to expand its application share in the high-end display market. With the development of 5g era, the rise and intelligent transformation of Internet of things and other industries, AMOLED flexible display technology, with its unique technical advantages, will drive a new round of innovation in display applications such as mobile intelligent terminals, with great market potential.2. It conforms to the company's own development strategy and is conducive to improving the company's competitivenessChina's new display industry has entered a critical period of development. Based on the broad market space of the high-end display market, the company needs to actively grasp the strategic opportunity period, optimize the industrial layout, improve the industrial structure and enhance its share in the AMOLED flexible display market. The company has profound experience and accumulation in AMOLED. After the project is put into operation, the company will further integrate the existing resources and quickly replicate the relevant experience of AMOLED production line in this project, which will help the company improve the scale effect on AMOLED products, timely grasp customer needs, maintain competitiveness in the high-end display market, and then enhance the company's comprehensive competitive strength.
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