RoboShield Simplifies Arduino Voice and Motor Control

If you would like to build a robot that can talk, as well as move with up to eight servos and two conventional motors, where would you start? Of course there are many ways to pull this off, but for a ready-made solution to construct your own roboCop or roboDog, Luke J. Barker has come up with the roboShield.As seen in the first video, a robot toy that has been augmented with this Arduino/shield combo, boots up and asks if the camera is on. He then introduces himself as "Toby," from the year 1986, and shows off his ability to move his head and arms. While he appears to be having a conversation with Barker, according to the write-up, there is no speech recognition, so this dialog is apparently a clever trick.Staged or not, the robot's innards are still impressive. Its text-to-speech capabilities give an unlimited vocabulary, which is powered by a 1 Watt aplifier. A 5V switching regulator is available for power, certainly necessary if you need to speak and control motors at the same time. All of this is controlled by the Arduino using only three I/O pins. This makes it a great method for augmenting retro-technology like Toby, or perhaps it could even control Teddy Ruxpin or a Furby!.

• You May Also Want to Know

what kind of Electric Motor would you choose for a RC rotorcraft?

it particularly relies upon on the value of the motor which on a airplane or helicopter are swifter than a motor vehicle you will get much less high priced brushless automobiles from china to run planes brushless very final longer than brushed automobiles

Motor Choice given size constraint and load requirement

Approach 1: based on the total weight and how steep a slope you would expect it to climb, calculate the power required. (Basic physics)Approach 2: draw a diagram of the wheel size you would like to use, with an obstacle of a given height in front of it. Work out the angle the wheel has to "lever" itself up to get over the obstacle, and work out the motor torque needed from that. Disclaimer: I did not do either of the above - I just bought a few of these (EMG30 motors) which were fine for a five kilogram machine. Yours will be a lot heavier though so I think the more precise method would be recommended

RPM Restricted CDI on the Yamaha Classic 49cc 4 Stroke Motor Scooter?

1 - The CDI is the ignition and has nothing to do with the tranny. #2 - There is no washer restriction in the Classic 4 stroke tranny #3 - The C3 and the Classic 49cc are different scooters

I am looking to buy a 9.9 hp Motor for my boat and i cant which one 2 buy ?

Q1: Two stroke engines are different than four stroke in some ways. Two strokes are louder, but also lighter. Four strokes are heavier, but also quieter. It's all about compromises. Another trade-off with two strokes is that you have to mix oil with the gas whenever you fill it up, which can become a pain. Four strokes require no mixing, just straight gas. Q2: For small outboards, I cant really tell you about the best brand. I do not think it really matters. As for large outboards, Yamaha's are known for their reliability. I have twin 225hp Yamaha's on my boat which could make me a little biased. Q3: Check with the marine store your buying it from if buying new. Different brands have different warranty's.

Selling a Motor Scooter, works but needs brakes, how much should I sell it for..?

that is a very fair price you should sell it quickly

Merc 150 Submerged Outboard Motor In Saltwater Sunk Boat?

You've got a lot of great answers here. One thing I did when my boat sank. I clipped the end of each wire when I replaced guages, fishfinder, etc. The wiring should be okay as it is insulated, but the connection ends will corrode. Everyone else hit it, batteries are no good nor are the guages, battery switch, etc. Careful with the batteries as salt water and the acid are very incompatible. Your engine should be fine, but do repalce ignition components. Good luck. My boat sank and I had great luck with it thereafter.

Looking 12V 5 RPM DC Gear Motor?

I play around building robotic things [lawnmower,remote control snowplow,etc].wheelchair motors are great. They are rated at 24v but work well on 12v .Get them on ebay ,or smaller machines can use cordless drill motors. Check out Parallax forums. They use microcontrollers to do a lot of cool stuff

Hydraulic Lifters and Valve Adjustment When The Motor Isn't Running... Check It Out? 1972 Chevelle 350?

# 4-8 easy way try this #4 with one valve open back off other one until you can spin push rod thumb and forefinger almost cant turn then turn 1/2 turn on rocker nut roll motor until other valve is open do same . if ran motor with valves to tight my have have to run motor a while with valves a Little loose to get lifter to pump up . low compression indicates valves to tight as motor heats up push rods expand and open valves more. or do it by the book. check for bent push rods.

What will Motor Vehicle do? Dui revoked one state only?

you are able to not perform or have yet another license if suspended in yet another state. once you bypass to DMV inquiring for for a license there's a question relating being suspended or no longer in yet another state. in case you lie and signal it, you will properly be put in detention center. License is a privilege.

What was the largest warship sunk by a Motor Torpedo Boat in WW2?

That is possibly the accidental sinking of the attack transport USS McCawley, Rear Admiral Richmond Kelly Turner's flagship for the invasion of Rendova Island on June 30, 1943, following her substantial damage by aerial attack and subsequent evacuation

Tilt Motor on 1999 Mazda Millenia?

First check the fuse block for a fuse or relay specific for it; if it's there just pull it. If nothing in particular there, you should be able to see some sort of electric motor or actuator under the dash; if so then there should be some sort of standard connection supplying power to it; disconnect it. should be all there is to it

Motor Clank Pontiac Grand Am?

Not being mean but we cannot hear the noise over the internet. I suggest you have someone local look at it to see what the problem is. Most likely internal engine issue, if you got over 150,000 miles, may be time for a engine replacement What you could do is remove the serpentine belt & start the car. This will let you know if it is internal or if it is one of the bearings or pulleys clanking

Stepper Motor H Bridge High Side N-Mos Burn Problem

I guess the problem is the back EMF of the motor. Just make sure the power supply never goes near 30V and you will be OK. You can use additional MOSFET zener to shunt the spikes within 28V for example. You may try adding 15V zener between gate-source of all the MOSFETS, although I do not think the gate voltage is the problem.Adding gate resistance makes MOSFETs switching a bit slower, which removes some voltage from inductive peaks here and there, but since the back emf is the real problem, the effect of it is marginal. DRV8711 has option for adjusting the gate current if I remember well - you may play with it instead.

Gross Motor ideas for infants?

By “more ideas“ I am assuming you have already thought of: rolling balls clapping hands crawling dancing jumping on rebounder shaking rattles, ringing bells banging on pans with spoons lots of floor time etc. . .

LS1 Firebird Motor Bump/Shake Shifting out of Park?

Well sounds like a bad motor mount.Have someone watch the motor and see if its moving a lot when changing gears from forward to reverse

I bought an Integra Motor from canada,but was ripped off, what do i do?

i say put the engine on craigs list and buy a skyline R34 engine or find one in a junkyard in canada

Please Suggest a DC Motor for chair car?

Use those employed on invalid chairs you can buy them secondhand

Driving Motor Bike In Neutral or First?

Listen to your brother. After all, it's his bike

Removing Harmonic Balancer To Get To Timing Chain. Small Block Chevy 350 Motor?

How To Remove Harmonic Balancer

96 Camry - Changed Motor Mount, Harmonic Balancer. Still Vibrates!?

what about 1 of the transmission mounts? maybe 1 of them are busted

2002 Alero Oldsmobile Blower Motor clean out?

BLOWER MOTOR REPLACEMENT REMOVAL PROCEDURE Remove the right side instrument panel (IP) insulator. Reposition the BCM aside. Refer to Body Control Module Replacement in Body Control System. Disconnect the blower motor electrical connector. Remove the blower motor retaining screws. Remove the blower motor and fan assembly. INSTALLATION PROCEDURE Install the blower motor and fan assembly. NOTE: Refer to Fastener Notice in Service Precautions. Install the blower motor and fan assembly screws. Tighten Tighten the screws to 5 N.m (45 lb in ). Connect the blower motor electrical connector. Install the BCM into position. Install the right side IP insulator.

Boyfriend is a Motor T in the Marine Corps?

Stop being so naive, and figure out how the military works. Your boyfriend is in very serious training, learning how to keep himself alive when he deploys. I think this is going to be the priority. He may not be able to use his phone. Depending on his Instructor, they could have restricted communication. Wait for him to get a free moment, and be patient. If it is meant to be, its meant to be... but believing that he is secretly trying to break up with you is ridiculous paranoia.

How much should I sell a 1967 Johnson Sea Horse Outboard Motor (60HP) for?

Johnson 60 Hp Outboard For Sale

The Ugly Stick showed up in Wall St ,Iraq and Motor City, Should it be thing of the year? What is your pick?

The ugly stick is a traditional Newfoundland musical instrument fashioned out of household and tool shed items, typically a mop handle with bottle caps, tin cans, small bells and other noise makers. The instrument is played with a drum stick and has a distinctive sound. I honestly dont think anyone would be interested in this (at least not the ones you listed). Maybe some of the tribes who are oblivious to what america has would be thrilled to have something like this to accompany their dancing.

Bike Motor Problem . . . . . . . . . .?

half the size of your ped its only the way for this

Three phase Motor rotation

Is this a theoretical swap because open circuiting a charged inductor is only a good idea if you want to generate an arc If however the phasing was swapped "electronically" via control laws of a V/f controller, the motor would very quickly stall and start rotating in the opposite direction

Motor on Downhill Bike possible?

I really would not bother. You have bicycle's and you have motor bikes and anything in between is ####

where can be used Repulsion Induction Motor especially?

In a 1969 handbook, I found that there are (or were) three types of repulsion motors. Straight repulsion motors, repulsion-start, induction-run motors and repulsion-induction motors. The main advantage of all three seems to have been high starting torque with relatively low starting current. At the time of publication of my reference, over 40 years ago, the straight-repulsion motor and the repulsion-induction motor were nearly totally obsolete and repulsion-start motors were not very popular and built by only a few manufacturers. Today, the answer to your question is: a repulsion-induction motor can be used as a boat anchor

This Is For The The Lawn Mower Racers Out There I Got A 11.5 Briggs And Statton Motor How Do You Make it Fast?

Well.. motors .. if you want to increase horse power.. put more gas and air into it... dah.. then EXHAUST the heck outa that puppy.. then work on suspension... Good Luk.

Artikel yang disarankan
IGBT of Fuji Motor Electronic Equipment Technology
IGBT of Fuji Motor Electronic Equipment Technology
The IGBT technology of Fuji motor and electronic equipment technology has been commercialized since 1988 and has been supplied in the market so far. Figure 1-3 shows the development process and application technology of IGBT products from the first generation to the fifth generation. Epitaxial wafers are used in the first to third generation IGBT, and the characteristics are improved by optimizing life cycle control and refinement technology of IGBT. Then, the fourth and fifth generation products have achieved significant characteristic improvement through the transition from epitaxial wafer to FZ (floating zone) wafer. In this regard, the design policy of IGBT has changed greatly compared with the past.Firstly, the basic design idea of IGBT using epitaxial wafer (series products up to 600V of the third to fourth generation, called "breakdown type") is as follows. In order to realize the low-pass state voltage during IGBT conduction, a large number of carriers are injected from the collector side to fill the IGBT with high concentration carriers. In addition, the n-buffer layer specially set to maintain the high voltage forms a very thin n-layer, so as to realize the low-pass state voltage. In order to realize fast exchange, life cycle control technology aiming at the rapid disappearance of carriers filled in IGBT is also adopted (through these, low exchange loss (eoff) can also be realized). However, once the life cycle control technology is applied, even in the normal on state, due to the effect of this technology (the carrier transport efficiency decreases), there is a problem of increasing the on state voltage, which can be solved by further high carrier injection.In short, the basic design concept of IGBT using epitaxial wafer technology can be simply summarized as "high injection and low transmission efficiency". In contrast, IGBTs using FZ wafers (series after the fourth generation 1200V) adopt a reverse basic design to inhibit the injection of carriers from the collector side and improve the transmission efficiency by reducing the injection efficiency. In the above-mentioned design concept of IGBT using epitaxial wafer "high injection and low transmission efficiency", the carriers that are not easy to be injected are forcibly suppressed through the control of life cycle, which not only limits the improvement of characteristics, but also increases the standard deviation of on-state voltage characteristics through the control of life cycle, It is very disadvantageous to the large capacity required for parallel use with increasing requirements in recent years. The technology developed to overcome this problem is a new IGBT using FZ chip (NPT: non punch through (used from the fourth generation IGBT) / FS: field stop (used from the fifth generation IGBT) - IGBT). The IGBT does not adopt life cycle control. Its basic design idea is to control the impurity concentration of the collector (P layer), so as to inhibit the carrier injection efficiency. However, in order to realize the characteristics superior to the IGBT using epitaxial wafer, it is also required to realize more than one hundred for the 1200V high voltage resistant series IGBT μ M (the thickness of n-layer in NPT and fs-igbt using FZ wafer ≈ the thickness of chip (wafer). The thinner the thickness, the lower the on state voltage can be generated). In short, it is not too much to call the development of IGBT using FZ chip a challenge to chip thickness.Fuji electric and electronic equipment technology has solved these problems. Starting from the fourth generation 1200V series - IGBT, it has realized the commercialization of "s series" constructed by FZ chip NPT. In addition, 600V series technology with higher thickness requirements is further developed, and 600v-u2 series (fifth generation) is being commercialized. In addition, in 1200V series - the fifth generation "U Series", in order to improve the performance better than s series, NPT structure has been changed to FS structure.The so-called FS structure does not use the life cycle control technology. While following the basic design concept of "low injection and high transport efficiency" of carriers, an n buffer layer to maintain voltage is set on the FZ wafer, so as to realize the IGBT structure thinner than the NPT structure. Through this change, 1200v-u series realizes the low on state voltage characteristic better than s series, and completes its commercialization. In addition, this technology is also used in 1700V series high voltage withstand series, and is also starting to be commercialized.Figure 1-3 changes of Fuji motor electronic equipment IGBT application technologyIn addition, Fuji electric and electronic equipment technology is also refining the surface structure indispensable for the improvement of IGBT characteristics (IGBT is formed by multiple IGBT plates. Through refinement, the more plates, the more low on-state voltage can be realized). Up to the fourth generation products, the planar structure (the structure of planar IGBT) has been used to promote refinement, so as to improve the characteristics. However, starting from the fifth generation products - 1200 and 1700V series, the grooved IGBT technology slotted on the Si surface and constituting IGBT has broken the subtle technical barrier and achieved unprecedented characteristic improvement. Figure 1-4 shows the change of characteristic improvement of 1200V series.Figure 1-4 improvement of balance characteristics
How Is an Electric Motor Conversion Kit Patent Eligible?
How Is an Electric Motor Conversion Kit Patent Eligible?
What is patented is defined by the claims. In this case there is only one claim (below). One thing to remember about claims. Long complicated claims where there are a lot of specifics are usually narrow and thus easily circumvented. Short claims are generally broader. In this case, there is a very long claim with many specifics. I am not sure why the examiner found this patent sufficiently novel, but I would say as an engineer, it should be trivial to engineer around this patent.An internal combustion engine to electric motor conversion kit system for supporting vehicle components in operative proximity to an electric direct/alternating current motor and for powering such supported vehicle components from the electric direct/alternating current motor, the supporting and powering being done in a safe, ecological, convenient and economical manner, the system comprising, in combination: a vehicle having a plurality of wheels and an operator controlled region,the electric direct/alternating current motor being within the vehicle, the electric direct/alternating current motor having a forward end and a rearward end and a cylindrical side wall, the electric direct/alternating current motor having a central shaft, the central shaft having a rearward section within the electric direct/alternating current motor and a forward section extending forward of the electric direct/alternating current motor, the central shaft being rotatable about a horizontal axis;a support assembly for retaining the electric direct/alternating current motor in an operative position, the support assembly including a central motor support and side motor supports, the motor mounts, the motor mounts coupling the central and side motor supports to the vehicle, the support assembly also including two vertically extending lateral brackets coupling the side wall of the electric direct/alternating current motor to the central motor support; a primary bracket formed with a vertically oriented first section removably coupled to the forward end of the electric direct/alternating current motor, the primary bracket formed with a vertically oriented second section rearwardly of and above the first section, the primary bracket formed with a third section perpendicular to and joining the first and second sections, an aperture in the first section in a key-hole shape for the passage of wires and the central shaft; vehicle components including at least one alternator and at least one air conditioning compressor and at least one power steering pump, the vehicle components being rotatably coupled to the second section of the primary bracket;a motion imparting assembly for driving the vehicle components, the motion imparting assembly including at least one drive pulley secured to and rotatable with the central shaft, the motion imparting assembly also including at least one driven pulley on the at least one alternator, at least one driven pulley on the at least one air conditioning compressor, and at least one driven pulley on the at least one power steering pump, the motion imparting assembly also including at least one idler pulley and at least one tensioning pulley, the motion imparting assembly also including at least one belt movable in a vertical plane and operatively coupling the at least one drive pulley and the at least one driven pulleys and the at least one idler and tensioning pulleys; a supplemental bracket secured to the second section of the primary bracket at an elevation above the third section, cable lines mounted on the supplemental bracket to increase and decrease the speed of the electric direct/alternating current motor and the vehicle; a radiator and a cooling fan, the radiator and cooling fan being positioned forward of the electric direct/alternating current motor to facilitate cooling of the electric direct/alternating current motor and the vehicle components; and a battery pack and controller in the vehicle for powering and controlling the electric direct/alternating current motor.1. how did michael faraday inventor of the electric motor change mankind?Electric motors transform electrical energy into mechanical energy the same way a steam engine transformed heat energy into mechanical energy. The source of the electrical energy was heat, but the electrical generator could be many miles from the electric motor. This was impractical with a steam engine if the steam had to travel very far through pipes. It made it possible to use mechanical energy in places where a boiler would be impractical. Electric motors could also be very small unlike steam engines which had to be at least the size of a car before they were mechanically efficient. Electric motors could also do something impossible to do with a steam engine. If mechanical energy was sent back through an electric motor it is transformed into electricity. This is the basis of electrical generators. It would be absolutely impossible to turn the wheels of a steam engine and generate coal.2. How can i increase the eficency of a Dc electric motor?Interesting reasoning, but there is one possible problem, and that would depend on the length of the race. If the capacitor is discharged at the beginning, then the solar panel is going to expend its energy charging the cap, rather than powering the motor. Once you get to steady speed, the motor with the capacitor may go faster by a tiny bit. Fair rules would suggest that you wo not be allowed to charge the capacitor beforehand. If you have an oscilloscope at your disposal, then I would look at the waveform of the current draw of the motor, when powered by the solar panel. You could then experiment with different size caps to see the power curve at startup, and steady state. Or, just determine which is best, if any, by running the car down the designated course length while timing it.3. Anyone know where I could get an RC electric motor with the following torque and RPM capabilities??...?Try or but you would better check your specs. 100 rpm is VERY SLOW, and unsuitable for directly driving an aircraft propellor 50Nm is VERY HIGH torque. Both of these specs suggest an integrated gearbox with the motor, but then you would have to add a second gearbox to step the speed up again... Perhaps the "100 rpm" is actually the kv figure. That means rpm per Volt applied. If so, it's still a VERY LOW kv figure. kv figures above 250, and up to 3000 or so, are common. It might help if you give more details of your aircraft model. Maybe it's quite large...
A Powerful Pull/rotate Device That Provides a Certain (controllable) Force?
A Powerful Pull/rotate Device That Provides a Certain (controllable) Force?
If I understand your question correctly, it seems to me that you are looking for a DC torque motor (brushed or brushless) with a suitable sensor attached to the load or to the output shaft. The sensor measures whatever it is what you want to control, you need a processor to implement the control system algorithms, and a power amplifier to deliver electrical power to the motorI don't know how to call the device I'm looking for (or need to create), maybe you can help me with terminology too so I can at least search..I want something that either rotates or pulls with a certain (controllable) force, i.e. not like a servo/stepper motor which control position, but on the contrary, it should be able to "catch up" to the moving load fast or stay still if the load is too heavy, but provide a steady pull of a certain force. Do these things exist and if so, what are they called? Do you know of any such thing that does it out of the box?Btw I'm looking for something that pulls in the range of 100-200 lb, so the constant tension things from sewing machines won't work :)·OTHER ANSWER:I don't know how to call the device I'm looking for (or need to create), maybe you can help me with terminology too so I can at least search..I want something that either rotates or pulls with a certain (controllable) force, i.e. not like a servo/stepper motor which control position, but on the contrary, it should be able to "catch up" to the moving load fast or stay still if the load is too heavy, but provide a steady pull of a certain force. Do these things exist and if so, what are they called? Do you know of any such thing that does it out of the box?Btw I'm looking for something that pulls in the range of 100-200 lb, so the constant tension things from sewing machines won't work :)
If You Had a Motorcycle Accident and Almost Died Would You....?
If You Had a Motorcycle Accident and Almost Died Would You....?
If you had a motorcycle accident and almost died would you....?I probably would, but it would not be a 1985 Yamaha Virago 700. (No offense intended to those who have similar motorcycles)— — — — — —I just scraped my leg from a motorcycle accident and my whole leg is swollen. Is this normal? How long will this last?I had a friend get hit on an enduro in a parking lot. His whole foot was extremely swollen but no broken bones. Took at least 1 week or more to go back to normal. He had boots on , 250 bike vs 70's car. No permanent damage but he was on crutches over 1 week— — — — — —Should I get a scooter or motorcycle?motorcycle. scooter the electric ones are annoying. why not a car? there was a motorcycle accident at the mcd's by my old high school. it was pretty gruesome. hope youre well trained— — — — — —Can I be paid to take care of my parents after they were in a motorcycle accident?Paid from whom? The government? No... You possibly seek legal advice and take the negligible parties insurance to court for some sort of settlement, but I highly doubt a positive outcome— — — — — —Should I get a lawyer after my motorcycle accident?Yes you should. If you let them fix your bike and pay your medical bills then sign the papers, they are off the hook. You might have problems with your ankle later on. You probably will have knee problems for life. I think you should at least get some professional advice on what to do. The insurance companies have lawyers, so should you— — — — — —what were some of the most tragic filmmaking deaths that have occured in history?Dar Robinson, the Ultimate Stuntman.... died in a motorcycle accident during the making of "Million Dollar Mystery"— — — — — —What are the odds that I would survive a crash on my motorcycle?I was in a motorcycle accident 3 hours ago, I was riding my 2012 Harley Davidson Road King after drinking several beers, was wearing my short sleeve leather shirt, a fake dot approved helmet, long pants long shirt and converse low cut tennis shoes.I hit a wet spot in the road and lost control of my bike.before I could get everything up, collected and situated, the cops and ambulance were there. .off to the emergency room we all went. .I've always been told there's two types of riders, those who have been down and those who are going down.I guess now I am a part of the been down club. .be careful out there fellow riders, and if you think you might have had too much to drink, do not ride.I was lucky, I walked away— — — — — —IF you know someone that has been in a bad motorcycle accident would you still get once?This sort of thing really is a stopper for some people - just the thought of it keeps people from even trying. Think about the accident. Could it have been avoided? Would a different position in the lane have helped? What about a headlight modulator? Brighter gear? Could you have reacted differently? Did you see the car and anticipate what it might do before it happened? Sometimes an accident really is unavoidable. Sometimes a driver gives you every sign that they have seen you. They look right at you and then pull out in front of - or into - you. Other times riders do not react appropriately when something scary is happening. How about gear? Would better gloves and a better jacket have prevented the road rash? Were you dressed for the crash? My suggestion is to think about what happened. think about what you did or did not do. Think about ways you could have protected yourself. Does that help? Can you mitigate the risk and learn from the accident? We do not get to be better at anything without having experiences we learn from. You are at a crossroads. You can quit - which for some people is a valid choice - or you can decide that you like riding too much to give it up. That is a decision that you have to make. If you do keep riding, start small. Do your parking lot drills and rebuild you confidence. Good luck, either way.
Motor Regenerative Braking of Electric Vehicles
Motor Regenerative Braking of Electric Vehicles
Motor regenerative brakingRegenerative braking is unique to electric vehicles. During deceleration braking (braking or downhill), part of the kinetic energy of the vehicle is converted into electric energy, which is stored in storage devices, such as various batteries, supercapacitors and high-speed flywheel, so as to finally increase the driving range of electric vehicles.If the accumulator has been fully filled, regenerative braking cannot be realized, and the required braking force can only be provided by the conventional hydraulic braking system. Now almost all electric vehicles are equipped with regenerative hydraulic braking system, which can save braking energy, recover part of braking kinetic energy, and provide conventional braking performance for drivers. Figure 6-3 shows the energy conversion of electric vehicles.When the electric vehicle decelerates, releases the accelerator pedal to cruise on the road, or presses the brake pedal to stop, the regenerative braking system starts. During normal deceleration, the torque of regenerative braking is generally maintained at the maximum load state;When the electric vehicle is cruising at high speed, the driving motor usually operates under the constant power state, and the driving torque is inversely proportional to the speed of the driving motor or the vehicle speed. Therefore, the higher the speed of the driving motor under constant power, the lower the regenerative braking capacity.In addition, when the brake pedal is pressed, the drive motor generally operates at low speed. At low speed, the kinetic energy of the electric vehicle is insufficient to provide energy for the driving motor to produce the maximum braking torque, so the regenerative braking capacity will decrease with the decrease of vehicle speed. As shown in Figure 6-4, the speed change curves of regenerative braking and hydraulic braking are shown. Generally, the regenerative braking torque of electric vehicles can not provide sufficient braking deceleration like the braking system in traditional fuel vehicles.Therefore, in electric vehicles, regenerative braking and hydraulic braking systems generally exist together. However, it should be noted that only when the regenerative braking has reached the maximum braking capacity and can not meet the braking requirements, the hydraulic braking will work.Regenerative hydraulic hybrid braking system is unique to electric vehicles, and fuel vehicles do not. The coordination between regenerative braking and hydraulic braking is the key to the problem. In addition, the following special requirements should be considered:In order to make the driver feel smooth when braking, the hydraulic braking torque should be controlled according to the change of regenerative braking torque, and finally make the driver get the desired total torque. At the same time, the control of hydraulic braking shall not cause the impact of the brake pedal, so it will not give the driver an abnormal feeling. The ESP function extended by ABS can be used to improve the oil pressure of the electric pump.This requires the ESP module of ABS to communicate with the vehicle control system. The regenerative braking software can be written into the ABS module to drive the oil pump, control the friction braking and control the vacuum source of braking assistance. ABS and vehicle controller can communicate to control the strength of regenerative braking. The hydraulic braking torque is electrically controlled and transmits the generated hydraulic pressure to the brake wheel cylinder. Therefore, the regenerative hydraulic braking system needs a mechanism to avoid braking failure.In order to improve the reliability of the system and meet the safety standards, the system usually adopts dual pipeline braking. When one pipeline fails, the other pipeline must be able to provide sufficient braking force. In order for the vehicle to brake stably, the braking force on the front and rear wheels must be well balanced. In addition, in order to prevent the vehicle from slipping, the maximum braking force applied to the front and rear wheels should be lower than the allowable maximum value (mainly determined by the rolling resistance coefficient).The regenerative hydraulic hybrid braking system adopted by the electric vehicle can meet the above requirements, and its basic structure is shown in Figure 6-5. After the driver depresses the brake pedal, the electric pump pressurizes the brake fluid to produce the required braking force. The braking control and motor control work together to determine the regenerative braking torque on the electric vehicle and the hydraulic braking force on the front and rear wheels.During regenerative braking, regenerative braking control recovers regenerative braking energy and recharges it into the battery. The function of ABS and its brake proportional control valve (EBD element with extended function of ABS) on electric vehicles is the same as that on traditional fuel vehicles, that is, it produces the maximum braking force. The electric pump can use the ESP electric energy supply pump in the extended function of ABS in the existing vehicle as the pressure source.The total braking torque of electric vehicle is the sum of regenerative braking torque and hydraulic braking torque. The distribution proportion relationship between them is shown in Figure 6-6. The purpose is to maintain the maximum regenerative braking torque and provide the driver with the same braking force as the fuel vehicle. When the brake pedal force is small, only the regenerative braking torque is applied to the driving wheel, it can be directly proportional to the brake pedal force. The braking force on the non driving wheel is provided by hydraulic braking, and the hydraulic braking force is also directly proportional to the brake pedal force.When the brake pedal force exceeds a certain value, the maximum regenerative braking torque is added to the driving wheel, and the hydraulic braking torque also acts on the driving wheel to obtain the required braking torque. Therefore, the maximum regenerative braking torque can be kept constant so that the kinetic energy of the vehicle can be completely recovered.The higher the pipeline pressure (or the deeper the brake pedal is depressed) caused by braking of the braking system, it means that the greater the total braking torque judged by the driver, the braking torque of non driving wheels is increasing, and the braking torque of driving wheels is also increasing. However, the friction torque increases much, and the regenerative braking torque does not increase or may even decrease, which requires the coordinated work of regenerative braking and ABS system.In ABS with independent front wheels and low selection principle for rear wheels, the brake pressure sensor (hydraulic sensor) monitors the brake pressure (hydraulic or air pressure) of the brake system pipeline. ABS uses the vehicle speed and pressure sensor (also known as the brake pedal travel switch) to collect the braking status signal, and compares the deceleration value calculated according to the vehicle speed with the set deceleration value, So as to control the vehicle.Attachment: ABS (anti lock braking system), ESP (electronic stability system), EBD (electronic braking force distribution system)
How Long Do Honda Motorcycles Last?
How Long Do Honda Motorcycles Last?
Honda motorcycles could last for long time as well as cars,u can own it for at least 25 years long..I know many people around who have honda motorcycles since 80's and they still look and work very good...but u wanna know what motorcycles can last for long?they are yamaha motorcycles,they can keep alive so damn long.1. Why are their more Honda motorcycles sold than Kawasaki's & Yamaha?Honda has the greatest quality control. Their sportbikes are more street orientated and rider friendly, whereas the other manufactures try to squeeze out every last bit of HP, which lowers their dependability. AND they offer a larger selection of models..2. Why do people hate on Honda Motorcycles?You see that in a lot of HD riders. Personally the way I see it. If you ride a bike it does not matter. You have that wind in your face and your in the open it's not the same as being in a car3. i need 5 harley, triumph, and or honda motorcycles?Triumph TR6 (single carb, 650cc twin) Bonneville (twin carb, 650/750 twin) Trident (750 triple) TR5T Adventurer (490cc trail) Trophy Trail (490cc trail) Harley Flathead Knucklehead Panhead Shovelhead Evolution Twin Cam4. in general, are buell or honda motorcycles better?the honda will be more reliable5. What is the main difference between R and RR models in Honda motorcycles?Be it Honda or any other manufacturer, normally the sports model is normally denoted by the 'R' insignia. Examples would be the ZX-10R, BMW S1000R.Like Vivek Mehlawat mentioned, RR stands for 'Race Replica'. They are more track oriented and are bred to do track days all day long.Major difference between the R and the RR models or, to be put in other words, the Sports and Race Replicas model is the addition of more exotic materials in the engine components to make the engine stand the demanding conditions of track, more electronics to help in posting faster lap times and improving feedback from the tarmac to the rider.I do think Yamaha did the same with their R1 series. One model is the sports model which we normally come to know as R1, where as the track oriented model is the R1M.Hope this helpsCiaoWhat is the main difference between R and RR models in Honda motorcycles?6. Harley davidson vs HONDA motorcycles?If you want a cheap throw away motorcycle you buy a Honda. They are good enough to get the job done however after about 10 to 15 years use they start to get a little on the ragged side. You get what you pay for. If you want something that is going to actually last you a very long time you get the Harley. You still see many road worthy 60's and 70's models on the road. Even the ones made in the dark AMF years when they were considered crap. How many 60's and 70's road worthy Honda motorcycles do you see. It is not like Honda sold only a few of them during these years. Honda sold a lot more bikes than Harley during these years. Again, you get what you pay for. Personally, I do not really care either way. You do not make the payments on my bike, I do not make the payments on yours. So I could care less about what you ride, and I could care less about what you think about what I ride. It really does not matter what you ride, as long as you ride.7. Are Honda motorcycles good to start with for a learner?Hondas are bulletproof, maintenance-wise, and the Shadow series bikes (750cc) are a perfect starter bike. Small enough to learn how to handle the weight (600 lbs), heavy enough to work on the highway (can do 80mph without issue), reliable enough to not worry about maintenance issues, and cheap enough to not worry when you drop it (you almost certainly will if you are a beginner rider, probably while backing up).I love Hondas, rode them for years. Would probably have never jumped to a different manufacturer except for the fact that my inseam is just not enough to handle a Goldwing without lowering it. I am generally opposed to lowering a bike, as it impacts how the bike performs. Other folks will tell you that they don't care, but this is in the "to each their own category."Enjoy, and please allow me to give you a few pieces of advice-call them rules for riding:Do not become enamored of speed. The acceleration a bike has is addictive (even a cruiser), but when you hit debris on the road going 100mph plus, you will regret it, for a brief moment in time.Don't have an ego while riding. Yes, you can blow that mustang away on your Ninja 900, but so what? Keep the rubber side down and enjoy the ride. That is the whole reason to own a bike.When you put someone in the 2 up, be even more careful. Think twice before riding after midnight. Think three times before drinking while riding. Most serious accidents on bikes involve speed, alcohol, or both, and they mostly occur between midnight and 3 a.m. Not saying you cannot have a beer or whiskey (beer is for horses, according to the song!), but pace yourself and ensure you are not impaired when you ride. Riding a bike is more complicated than driving a car.Last piece: Assume everyone is a evil idiot who is out to run you over. Ride like it every minute of every day. You'll be pleasantly surprised a lot (people often give way to a biker, let you go first at four way stops, etc. ), but you'll never be disappointed when that idiot does change lanes on top of you. Stay out of blind spots, too.Don't mean to scare you, I have been riding a long time and have never had a major accident. I also live by those five rules. Riding is a great experience, and I ride every day (don't even own a car, although the wife does). I wouldn't give it up for the world!Good luck!Are Honda motorcycles good to start with for a learner?
How to Select Stepping Motor
How to Select Stepping Motor
The stepping motor is composed of three elements: step angle (number of phases touched), static torque and current. Once the three elements are determined, the type of stepper motor is determined.1、 Selection of step angle of stepping motorThe step angle of the motor depends on the requirements of load accuracy. Convert the minimum resolution (equivalent) of the load to the motor shaft, and how many viewpoints each equivalent motor should go (including deceleration). The step angle of the motor shall be equal to or less than this viewpoint. Nowadays, the step angle of stepping motor in shopping malls usually has 0.36 degrees / 0.72 degrees (five-phase motor), 0.9 degrees / 1.8 degrees (two-phase and four-phase motor), 1.5 degrees / 3 degrees (three-phase motor), etc.2、 Selection of static torque of stepping motorIt is difficult to determine the dynamic torque of the stepping motor in an instant. We usually determine the static torque of the motor first. The selection of static torque is based on the load of motor operation, and the load can be divided into inertia load and resistance load. A single inertial load and a single conflicting load do not exist. When starting directly (usually at low speed), both loads should be considered. When accelerating the start, the inertial load should be considered first, and the conflicting load only needs to be considered when operating at constant speed. Generally, the static moment should be within 2-3 times of the resisting load. Once the static moment is selected, the motor base and length can be determined (several specifications)3、 Selection of stepping motor currentFor motors with the same static torque, because the current parameters are different, their operating characteristics are very different. The current of the motor can be different according to the torque frequency characteristic curve (see driving power supply and driving voltage).
How to Connect an AC Brushless Motor to a Transformer?
How to Connect an AC Brushless Motor to a Transformer?
How to connect an AC brushless motor to a transformer?You need to identify the motor. What are the nameplate ratings. A brushless motor implies a DC motor with electronic power supply that uses 3 windings, white similar to a small AC generator. Used in video recorders etc. An AC motor without brushes is usually some sort of induction motor, with a squirrel cage rotor. It could be a 3 phase motor (usually bigger) or a single phase motor with some provision for a phasing capacitor or starter switch or klixon. All these can be used as generators in some way, and if the RPM is right they will generate voltage similar to their motor voltage. Induction motors need excitation by using capacitors or connecting to a supply. that both excites and receives the output. If it is a shaded pole motor it will be a little disappointing. A transformer would boost the voltage assuming it is designed for the frequency of the generator and the voltage and power levels involved. Look up the motor types and you may find explanations and pictures that help you identify the motor type, and size. This activity has the potential to be hazardous, but I have no idea exactly what it is you intend to do. It makes sense to get someone knowledable to supervise the activity to make sure you are not at risk.— — — — — —Can a motor say a brushless motor, run a bigger alternator with some configuration like gearing ratios, so that the alternator will produce more power needed to run the motor?Q: Can a motor say a brushless motor, run a bigger alternator with some configuration like gearing ratios, so that the alternator will produce more power needed to run the motor?nA: Of course it canu2019t.Can a motor say a brushless motor, run a bigger alternator with some configuration like gearing ratios, so that the alternator will produce more power needed to run the motor?— — — — — —How to control a brushless motor?You can control brushless motors 2 ways— — — — — —will blocking the output of a dc 12 volt brushless motor hurt it or make it get hot and burn up?It all depends.a fully blocked (Stalled) DC brush motor will generate heat and eventually fry. Some do it quick, some take time. I have seen BLDC motors self proctect with thermal cutoffs and current monitoring in the software of the motor itself or the driver circuit.— — — — — —predicting brushless motor rotation direction?I've asked this on rcgroups as well, and it seems there's no way other than experimenting. If you had a similar bunch of motors and speed controllers that were manufactured identically, then it would be possible to experiment with one motor/esc set and apply the discovered rotation to the other motors and controllers— — — — — —How would I turn a brushless motor into a alternator/generator?A brushless motor can not be used as a generator. I am not going to explain why, since all that matters is that it wo not work.— — — — — —Brushed or Brushless Motor: What's the Difference?The biggest difference between brushed and brushless motors, unsurprisingly, is the brush. Otherwise, the principle behind the internal workings of brushed and brushless motors are much the same. As the motor windings energize, it creates a temporary magnetic field to repel or attract permanent magnets. This magnetic force is converted to shaft rotation, allowing the motor to do work. As the shaft rotates, the electric current is routed to different sets of windings. This maintains electromotive repulsion or attraction, forcing the rotor to continually rotate. The use of brushed DC motors began in 1856. Today, electrical propulsion, cranes, paper machines and steel rolling mills all use brushed motors. One problem with brushed motors is that the brushes wear down and require frequent replacement. Brush wear became a significant drawback as application demands increased and high-electric discharge noise became an issue. Hence, a new motor was born.the brushless DC motor. Brushless DC motors use electronic speed controller devices and quickly displaced brushed motors for many applications. Advancements in solid state technology in the early 1960s resulted in the invention of the first brushless DC (BLDC) motor in 1962. T.G. Wilson and P.H. Trickey called it a "DC machine with solid state commutation." The key element of the brushless motor is that it requires no physical commutator, making it the most popular choice for computer disk drives, robotics, and aircrafts. Brushless DC motors, with no brushes to wear out, represent a huge leap forward in technology. They also provide significantly higher efficiency and performance. They also offer a lower susceptibility to mechanical wear than their brushed counterparts. • Elimination of ionizing sparks from the commutator (ESD) Despite their reliability, the initial downside to early brushless motors was that they could not generate a great deal of power. When better permanent magnet materials became available in the 1980s, they enabled brushless motors to generate as much (or more) power as the previous brush motors on the market. In the late 80s, Robert E. Lordo built the first large-scale brushless DC motor with ten (10) times the power of the earlier brushless motors. Today's brushless motors solve many limitations of brushed motors by combining a higher output power, smaller size and weight, better heat dissipation and efficiency, wider operating speed ranges, and very low electrical noise operation. Brushless motors have no electrical contacts designed for wear, providing the greatest advantage in reliability and reduced maintenance intervals for commercial and industrial applications. Designed and engineered in the United States, KDE Direct's brushless motors provide best-in-class power, performance, and efficiency. The KDE Direct UAS Multi-Rotor Brushless Motor Series presents high-quality and engineered motors specific for multi-rotor and UAS applications. The series was designed to provide market-leading performance and zero-vibration operation for hours of maintenance-free usage and market-leading performance.
Shunt DC Motor Controller Improvement
Shunt DC Motor Controller Improvement
Shunt DC motor controller improvementSo this looks as if the circuit controls armature current?It controls armature voltage.would it be better if the winding current was controlled?Controlling armature current with an outer voltage or speed control loop would be better, but more complex.By "winding current" I suspect you mean field winding current as apposed to armature winding current. Controlling the field winding current would make the minimum operating speed about equivalent to the present maximum speed. Reducing the field current will increase the speed and reduce the torque capability. I doubt very much that is what you want.The above seem to be the only actual questions asked. The question seems to imply that you wish to improve the control scheme because the motor " runs slightly erratically." You have not actually described what aspect of motor performance is undesirable.Speed decrease with increased load is normal for a simple armature voltage control. Random speed variation with a steady load could be due to line voltage variation, other power quality issues, motor brush problems or a loose connection. Failure to start relably would like be a brush problem— — — — — —Can you use an AC switch with a DC motor?Just follow the ratings of the switch. Typically, the DC voltage rating is less than the AC voltage rating. Current ratings are normally the same— — — — — —What is an interpole in a DC motor?Thanks for A2A.Purpose of Interpole in DC MachineFor understanding the role of Interpoles, we need to understand the effect of armature reaction in the DC Machine. The effect of armature mmf on the main field flux is to distort the main field flux and to reduce the net main field flux. The figure below, shows the effect of armature mmf on the main field flux. It is quite clear from the above figure that the flux at the location of Carbon Brush i.e. A, B and A are not zero and therefore an EMF will be induced in the coils undergoing commutation and will lead to the sparking. As we know that for better commutation, the coils short circuited by the brushes should have zero EMF induced in them. As the zero crossing of field flux is shifted due to armature reaction, the coils undergoing the commutation will have a net EMF induced in them. This induced EMF in the short circuited coil will delay the reversal of current in the short circuited coils and will result into poor commutation and sparking at the carbon brushes.The question arises how to resolve this issue?If we see the figure above, we observe that there is a net shift of zero crossing of net flux in the air gap by an angle Ɵ in the direction of rotation for Generator and opposite to the direction of rotation for Motor. So the cheap and easy solution shall be to shift the Carbon Brush at Zero Crossing of the air gap flux.Thus carbon Brush need to be shifted by an angle Ɵ from Geometrical Neutral Axis (GNA) in the direction of rotation for Generator and opposite to the direction of rotation for Motor.But this method of shifting the Carbon brush has a big disadvantage. What is that?As the Armature Reaction depends on the current flowing through the armature winding which in turn depends on the load current. Therefore as the loading of the DC Machine varies the angle Ɵ will also vary and therefore we need to continuously shift the Carbon Brushes. So we need to find a smart way.Again, looking back to the figure, if it could be possible to make the resultant or net air gap flux zero at GNA, then there would not have been any detrimental effect of armature reaction on commutation. Also, the existing flux at the GNA (at point C) is due to North Pole so we could use a South Pole (opposite of the pole which produced the imbalance at C) at C so that the net flux at C becomes Zero. Similarly at C' we can use a North Pole to make net flux Zero there. Okay, this will work fine but how t change the magnitude field strength of this newly installed poles at C and C'? Hmmmm. .We can use a winding on the newly installed poles at C and C' and connect that winding in series with armature winding so that the strength of field due to newly installed poles at C and C' varies proportionally will the loading of machine. Yes, this will work fine.So we can conclude our solution as,We will use Poles same as that of Main Poles ahead of GNA or Carbon Brush for Generator at the location of GNA or Carbon Brush and Poles same as Main Pole that of behind the GNA or carbon Brush for Motor at the location of GNA or Carbon Brush and will use winding on them and connect them in series with the armature winding as shown in figure below.The Poles used in our smart solution is called the Interpole. Interpoles are narrow poles placed at the GNA and fitted to the Yoke and also known as Commutating Poles or Compoles. For generator, the polarity of Interpoles must be same as that of main Pole ahead of it in the direction of rotation. For Motor, the polarity of Interpole must be same as that of Main Pole behind it. So I expect that you understand the purpose of Interpoles as you only designed it. But there is one more interesting role of Interpole.Interpole do not only nullify the effect of armature reaction but in addition, produces some extra mmf in the interpolar zone. This extra mmf in the interpolar zone induces rotational EMF in the short circuited coil undergoing commutation in such a direction to oppose the reactance voltage in the coil. Thus the resultant the resultant voltage in the short circuited coil becomes zero and the commutation is spark less.What is an interpole in a DC motor?
Global Permanent Magnet Motor Market (2021 to 2026) - Adoption of Cost-Effective Ferrite Permanent M
Global Permanent Magnet Motor Market (2021 to 2026) - Adoption of Cost-Effective Ferrite Permanent M
Global Permanent Magnet Motor Market (2021 to 2026) - Adoption of Cost-Effective Ferrite Permanent Magnets Presents OpportunitiesIncreasing demand for energy-efficient motors and growing implementation of permanent magnet motor in industries such as automotive are the key factors driving the permanent magnet motor market. The high initial cost of permanent magnet motor can restraint the growth of the permanent magnet motor market. However, growing robotics technology offers promising business opportunities in the permanent magnet motor market. However, growing robotics technology offers promising business opportunities in the permanent magnet motor market.— — — — — —How can magnets be used to generate electricity?A rotating coil of wire in a magnet field (generated by a permanent magnet) will generate a voltage. or A rotating permanent magnet with a fixed coil of wire will generate a voltage. .— — — — — —Design of Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motor Control System Based on dsPIC30F4012The brushless DC motor has been promoted rapidly with the rapid development of the power electronics technology, microelectronic technology and rare earth permanent magnet materials. The brushless DC motor has a series of advantages of small volume, light weight, high efficiency and energy saving, easy speed regulation, simple structure, reliable operation and easy maintenance, etc, and it has been widely used in all areas of industrial control now. This paper mainly introduces the working principle of the permanent brushless dc motor and Microchip's motor dedicated digital signal controller-dsPIC30. The brushless DC motor control solutions with dsPIC30F4012 for control chip is proposed according to the fans and pumps load requirements, the hardware circuit is designed, and part of the source program is given. By designing hardware, writing control software, debugging and improving experimental system, it can be concluded that this system has superior control performance, reliability, and the product design requirements are achieved. Brushless DC motor is composed of three major parts, motor body (the armature at the side of the stator, the permanent magnet at the side of the rotor), position sensors and electronic commutation circuit . The working principle is as follows: with output signal of the position sensor which reflects the position of the rotor, electronic commutation circuit drives the corresponding power switching device with the armature winding connection, in turn makes the armature winding feed, thus generates jumping rotating magnetic field in the stator, and drives the permanent magnet rotor rotate. With the rotation of the rotor, position sensors constantly send signals, change the power state of armature windings, and make the conductor current direction remain unchanged under a pole. At present, with the extensive use of brushless DC motor, some internationally renowned semiconductor manufacturers have targeted this market, introduced the DSP chip for motor control system, also integrated together the microcontroller (MCU) control functions. In these chips ' platform, a high performance brushless DC motor numerical control system can be produced expediently. And as a rising star, Microchip Technology Inc has promoted a dsPIC30F digital signal controller with the PIC16 position monolithic integrated circuit as the core and in inlays DSP engine's. In the brushless DC motor control areas this controller has occupied a dominant position . 2. Design Of Control System Based On The dsPIC30F Brushless Dc Motor Control system's DC motor uses the rare earth permanent brushless DC motor developed by Microchip Technology Inc. The brushless DC motor control program uses the typical three-phase six state circuits , and its main circuit diagram as shown in Fig. 1. The working principle is: 270V voltage supplied by the input power is applied on the three-phase power bridge formed by power MOSFET through a filter circuit. The three-way rotor position signal which is produced by Hall commutation detection and shaping circuit is processed by the PICF4012 and then the PWM control signal is produced. Through the power actuation module, three groups of electrical machinery square-wave slaving voltages are output, and then give the motor three-phase winding electric conduction in turn, thus actuate the motor rotating. The peripheral circuit mainly contains the simulation connection, analog input connection, oscillating circuit, reset circuit, correspondence connection and so on. And the circuit is shown in Fig.2. The experiment proved that this peripheral circuit can make the chip work stably. In order to protect the logic circuit trouble-free service and produce enough large electric current to driver power MOS tube, certain installment to satisfy this function must be used. Infineon production, 6ED003L06-F is the special gate drive integrated circuit for MOS power components with the largest positive peak output drive current 440 mA. Through the internal bootstrap technique, external three high back pressure and fast recovery rectifiers D2,D3,D4 and the bootstrap capacitors C37-C42 can create enough current to drive the power MOS tube. The scheme uses a typical three-phase full-bridge power conversion circuit and the high voltage power SPW47N60C3 MOS tube. The maximum current is 47A and the maximum voltage is 650 V. The circuit is shown in Fig. 3. In order to control the current effectively,the project may adopt current loop control,and need real-time accurate measurement of the bus current. And the specific circuit and parameters are shown in Fig. 4. The form of differential amplification circuit is used, and the errors caused by problems ranging from level Between DGND to AGND can be solved effectively. On the hardware platform completed debugging, we prepared the commutation and speed control PI program of control system, and carried it out with load debugging. Commutation logic table is as follows: volatile unsigned int StateLoTableClk[] = 0x0000, 0x0210, 0x0801, 0x0810,0x2004, 0x0204, 0x2001, 0x0000; volatile unsigned int StateLoTableAntiClk[] = 0x0000, 0x2001, 0x0204, 0x2004,0x0810, 0x0801, 0x0210, 0x0000; PI speed control program is as follows: void CalculateDC(void) unsigned int i; else if ((i-speederr)> ActualSpeed) if (PDC_buffer
tidak ada data

Copyright © 2020  Shandong Abusair Agricultural Machinery Co,. Ltd- |  Sitemap

Multifunctional farm Abusair machinery  |  Tea Professional Cultivator farm machinery