Return Current in 8 Layer Stackup

I prefer stack B and I would do my best to get as much of the Vcc layer onto spare areas of the signal layers. This means that more of VCC layer can be used for GND.I am assuming you having components only on the top layer (signal1 layer).

• Related Questions

Help understanding a Magnetic Levitation Physics Toy

What you are looking for is contained in these two articles, explaining the physics of the "Magnetic Levitron" ... pretty cool stuff.Stability of Levitrons (Dullin, Easton) Levitron: An Adiabatic Trap for Spins (Berry)


Are any large restaurant chains pursuing better alternatives to recyclable packaging?

Loop Industries is promoting their reusable packaging, and has deals with some large brands, though mostly in the cleaning and personal care (as opposed to foods) - like Tide, Clorox and Cascade.

Brands working with Loop Industries Loop provides reusable totes and packaging, along with delivery, pickup and cleaning/sterilization. See how it works for more details


How to track character resources (spells, ammo, items) closed

My former group put their sheets in clear plastic pockets and used permanent markers to tick of non-permanent information (and used a cloth and various rubbing alcohol products to wipe it clean). I bought an eyeglass cleaning product and emptied it out in the sink, because I needed to spray capability of the container


How much thermal paste should apply to the CPU?

That depends on the paste you are using. I use a non-conducting colloidal silver paste and apply just a small, grain of rice sized, dab in the middle and spread it out with a plastic bag protected finger. The surface of the die has to be immaculate as in cleaned with acetone first


Where can I find a set of these 'logic' blocks?

There are several vendors, but I was unable to find shapes that differ in holiness. Instead, they are different in size, color, shape and thickness.They seem to go by the name attribute blocks or logic blocks.

They are available at amazon or, as @AmyB said in the comments, here:


What kind of plastic is (really) safe to store vegetable oil?

If you are concerned, I would suggest that high-density poly ethylene (HDPE) or poly propylene (PP) to be better options. HDPE is a heavy duty plastic resistant to most chemicals and physical deformation- it is often used for household products including bleach, detergent etc, but is also commonly used for milk bottles and the like


Plastifying rusty integrated dish drying rack (food contact)

They are completely safe for use. But before you apply one of these plastic products, first get some rust reducer. Sand or scrape to remove most of the rust, and then apply the rust reducer. These reverse the oxidation process as well as providing a smooth surface suitable for painting or covering with those plastic products.


Where do I purchase a Windows 10 product key online? closed

Just go to select Store from the Microsoft home page should do the trick. Go to the bottom of - and shows it as $199.00 - Just keep going as you have the option to "Buy Windows 10" and download right away - Not Upgrade.


Is Perlite safe to use in the home or will it cause health issues?

It's impossible to work with perlite without making clouds of fine dust. I use it indoors but I try to be very careful how I pour it out of the bag. Once it's mixed with soil or wet the dust isn't an issue but particulate matter like that can cause lung issues maybe even cancer.


Thin profile wire joins and forks

Wago Lever-nuts are good for quick reliable connections. I use them all the time when assembling test fixtures or making temporary connections. Wire nuts are also good if the connection is meant to be permanent. Although I haven't used them these seem to be lower profile and maybe closer to what you are looking for


Mulching or Mini Septic for Solid Dog Waste?

There are many studies (about health and approving it) about convert Human Waste into a Safe Garden Compost Fertilizer. In that way, it seems plausible that the same can be done with cat/dog feces.For more information about "how to convert Human Waste into a Safe Garden Compost Fertilizer", plase create a new question.


Can I use a Film to wrap something?

"Film" normally refers only to the specific type of wrapping known (at least in the US) by the most common brand name, "Saran Wrap".Otherwise things like candies are said to be individually wrapped in plastic (or paper). Store-bought products that are covered in a thin plastic film are said to be shrink-wrapped.


What makes cables suitable or unsuitable for a given purpose?

The video's most likely to pickup noise from the digital signals,

audio at headphone power level won't pick up or interfere with any of those signals noticeably. using a separate shielded cable for the video could be a win but you may find that an off-the-shelf video balun works well enough.


Plastic enclosure for small product closed

I agree with Ian, try to use a existing box.A tip is to get a label-printer that can print labels with a nice graphical logo,

a productname, serienumber etc etc. It's a cheap way of transforming a boring black box into something that looks a little bit more professional.Maybe something like this?


Replacing leaking Scalemaster scale inhibitor

It looks like the unit has been damaged on installation, likely heat damage. The product is plastic so heat is going to cause a problem. It does state this in the instructions. Follow the instructions in the box and you won't go wrong. DO NOT subject the unit to direct heat, chemicals or other corrosive materials


Round Bottom Flask with Inner Coating

I've seen a couple of companies making flasks entirely from PTFE or PFA, which might be suitable. They may not hold up to heating with internal vacuum though, for example, check out the notes here.And yes, the typical safety coatings are on the outside to hold the glass together on fracture.


Improvising a temporary skylight?

You know what would probably work really well, and offer superb protection in the process? A clear glass baking dish. Pre-shaped, tough as nails and fairly inexpensive (you can probably do better at shopping than I did).Plop it down on a 3/8" bead of pure silicone caulk (clear, of course) and walk away.


How to build plastic prototype? closed

The company I work for uses 3d printing for all our prototypes. I think you'd be surprised how good the tolerances are for printed objects. You'll see print lines on these objects, but that's nothing a little sanding won't take care of.

To see how advanced 3d printing has gotten, see


Building a phone charger 500 years ago

Why can't you take out the battery and connect it to Volta's pile (4 of them), that is 4.4V when fully charged, this is more than enough for Li-Ion battery operating at 4.2V, you can ignore 0.2V overvolt I'm sure battery can handle that. As soon as you connect pile to battery, pile's voltage will drop


Bottom bracket tool for Shimano BB-R60 Ultegra 6800/105 5800 Hollowtech ii?

The Park BBT-59 is the main one you'll see. (If you scroll down a little on your link to it, you'll see it says it's the one for BBR60.) A less expensive one from Lifu/Icetoolz now exists and I see it can be found on ebay if you search for "icetoolz m093.

" It's 1/2in drive.


Looking for a sci-fi dystopian story where the main characters are trained children duplicate

It sounds a little bit like the first part of "Hybrid Children of the Stars", but it's a young boy and a girl who escape, and they escape through a portal (to Earth), not by breaking out.


Small space between Cooler and GPU - how to secure components

Your graphics card will not be damaged. Running it in the 4x slot is how you can achieve crossfire on lower end motherboards. Putting some duct tape over the wire so that it doesn't scratch or otherwise damage the card is a good idea. Don't worry you sound like you're on top of it.


Render Glass like materials with Alpha Channel to composite in external app

Sounds like what you need is a Shadow Catcher material, unfortunately that doesn't exist in Blender at the moment, as of version 2.78.It is currently being developed and may be ready for release for the next 2.79 version.Until then you may risk playing around with it with a Development unstable build from Graphicall.



What is the role of re-enforcing mesh in plastering, when is it required, and which mesh types are prefered?

The main purposes of the mesh are to:Is it required? Probably not.

Is it a good idea? Yes, absolutely!I've only seen the metal lath-type used in outdoor applications or for products like stucco. The lighter-weight and less expensive products like plastic or fiberglass are often used indoors and are preferred these days.


Does this exist - 'screwdriver gun' with cartridge to automatically load new screws?

There are systems. Your question made me do a search.An interesting version is StickScrew and they do screws down to M2.Figure 1. The StickScrews come in sticks. These are inserted through the rear of the tool and the screw snaps off when torqued. The screws have hex heads.See a 30 s StickScrew video on YouTube


Non-glass baking containers for both microwave and oven use

The material you'd want is silicone.For example, there are silicone baking molds. They are often used in professional kitchen settings, but I'm sure you find find some online. Here's an example.There are probably other kinds of silicone containers that can handle oven well, and they can definitely handle microwave.


Alternative options to change sex-based characteristics in a non-modern world setting?

This is a non-medical approach...

One thing to consider is the use of language - for instance in Thai, the speaker identifies her/his/their gender through a verbal element:

A woman says sawadi-ka (hello), while a man says sawadi-krap (hello).

So a transgender person could transition through the use of the suffix...


Toy-like plastic strip for allowing turn-on

A strip of paper between two neodymium magnets would achieve this - connections can be soldered to the other sides and the magnets would not need to be very big if weight is an issue. A stiff strip and magnets with beveled edges would allow the strip to be re-inserted easily


A pox on plastic bags duplicate

Although not the answer sought, this was the main plot point of the first program of the BBC TV series 'Doomwatch' and was also released as a book; the TV episode was first aired in Feb 1970 (and I watched it then), slightly pre-dating Ringworld though they will have been independently developed in an overlapping time frame


Is it safe to drink from Pick A Brick cups?

The Pick-a-Brick cups are made from polypropylene, as evidenced by the #5 resin identification code on the bottom. Polypropylene is widely considered a safe plastic for storing food and drink, and it is stable at very high temperatures (i.e., temperatures higher than your dishwasher). I would feel comfortable drinking out of one of the cups


What kind of cheese skin is this?

That's called the "rind". It's the outer layer of cheese, hardened by the drying process, and colored brown with food coloring in order to imitate more artisinal smoked cheeses (where it would be actually brown due to smoke). It's perfectly edible, and doesn't generally taste any different from the rest of the cheese food


Routers that are compatible with Time Machine

The Eero router is a good solution; not only does it create a mesh network (meaning it's easier to access the internet and upload files to your Time Capsule from remote corners of a house) but it also is significantly faster. I have had great success with eero Time Capsule for months. Eero's websiteEero on Amazon


Burn stains inside microwave

I would get a professional micro-wave cleaning liquid: Acetone is a prohibited product in some countries nowadays as it's highly flammable and slightly toxic whereas in some countries it's still readily available in cheap nail polish remover. As it's a strong solvent, it will damage most plastics including white plastic microwaves


When sanding spindles how far should I go?

If the thick paint is attached well sand all the irregular bumps and brush marks out or they will show when you repaint.

I use Floetrol when I want a brush stroke free finish.

The Floetrol makes a very nice finish when you have to use a brush,and want a satin finish.


Gigabyte 970A-UD3P - FX-8320e - Kingston Hyper X Beast 8GB 1866Mhz - Posting problems

Ok, this is really weird... I got the fan off, did not move the cpu at all, did not replace thermal paste, got the fan on again exactly like the first time AND IT BOOTED... it found a corruption in bios which it restored and all is well again in the world


In an interstellar/interplanetary civilization, which would be most common/cheapest in the market: Plastic or metals?

Depends on the technology of the society, and how easy they find it to get into space from the bottom of a gravity well. There are asteroids entirely made of metal, but Titan has entire hydrocarbon oceans that could be pumped up and processed much more easily than asteroids can be mined

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Dongguan Yuexiang Plastic Products Co., Ltd.
PVC is a soft and adaptable plastic that can be molded to any shape and dyed to any color or shade, because they can withstand most wear and tear and washes and still outlast the clothing ,so that we use it to manufacture soft rubber PVC patches and labels that are more durable than cloth patches. Soft PVC patches also can be made with a 2D or 3D design.PVC patches are perfect for jackets, hats, backpacks, and bags. Why? PVC (polyvinyl chloride) is a waterproof and weather-resistant material, and as a result PVC translates into wonderfully durable plastic patches. They are the alternative go-to for outdoor gear, such as camping equipment, covers and outerwear. As with all of our products, our pvc patches are custom-designed to your specifications.Soft PVC patches are very popular for: police departments, military units, scout groups, highway patrols and fire departments, outdoor & sports such as airsoft, paintball, and hiking.They can be sewn on the garment equipment or they can have a Velcro backing if you do not want your patches to stay permanent.Custom PVC patches are popular for tactical uniforms of any kind: your patches can be sewn-on for a permanent solution or attached-detached to your uniforms when you choose hook-and-loop backing.PVC Patches are the best choice for patches for outdoor gear, such as, camping equipment, covers and outer wear.If you are a manufacturer looking to make custom PVC patches for jackets, hats, backpacks and bags, think about PVC. PVC is a waterproof and weather resistant material, your custom patches will last longer, no fraying involved, and keep your uniforms looking amazing.How do you tell if a clothing patch is Iron on or Sew on?The iron-on patch will be a little bit shiny, or glossy on one side. If both sides of the patch look the same then it's most likely a sew-on patch. It would not be difficult to sew on, but it might not look attractive unless you use a really small, straight stitch.customize clothing, patches?You can buy iron on interfacing at a fabric store and either a swatch of fabric with your team's logo on it or create your own letters etc and then use the iron on interfacing to adhere it to your clothing...for a neater apperance around the edges (if you do not sew or do not want to sew) you can outline it with a corresponding fabric paint. They come in all colors and a squeeze bottle for easy application.Custom made clothing patch(es) question...?That can be done. But you would have to see if the design was Copy-write protected first. Or you could make at least two minor changes and it should be okayed. Go to the yellow pages of the local phone book and look up Embroidery. There you should find shops that do customized embroidery. Get in touch with them and they can give you all the information you need. Good luck, it sound like a stellar ideaI'm cleaning my new pellet rifle's barrel, the cloth patches always come out red colored, what does this mean?the chinese use a red lube before shipping over seas to prevent rust! go be gone works good to remove it, then clean with dry patches and followed by oiled patch. dont ever use hoppes9 or any firearms products on an airgun, it will damage it. so recommended oils are airgun oils, slick 50 or manufacture recommended oils. b3 are worth the $20-30 and can be very good once tunedRusty barrel fixes, pellet rifle rust remover?i would say rust remover on the outside and a copper wire brush down the bore with lots of solvent and then use a bore mop soaked in solvent, then back to the copper brush until as little rust comes out along with the brush as possible, then re-oil with cloth patches and hope for the best, chances are the pellet already had plenty of clearance from the barrel walls as it was, now youve removed more material so theres an even larger gap between pellet and barrel so dont shocked if you lose velocity and accuracyHow do I sew on cloth patches without them fraying?you iron them on.....some patches come with a glue type that when heated it adheres to the material
What About Plastics in the Oceans? #21
The world’s plastic problem is bigger than the ocean. But what about it?Plastic Pollution: here’s a SnapshotYou live hundreds of kilometres from the coast and you think that it won’t end up in the ocean! Let’s STOP you right now… you’re wrong! The plastic you throw away could make its way into the sea. Plastic decomposes very slowly, it breaks down into micro plastics that can be incredibly damaging to sea life.Did you know that 80% of plastic in our oceans is from land sources ? But what does that mean? Who is behind all that mess?The facts are overwhelming3 reasons why the plastic we use every day ends up in the oceans.1. Using the bin when it could be recycledWhen you go to the supermarket and you don’t buy in bulk, you consume plastic. And where does it end? It ends up in the landfill. When the rubbish is being transported to a landfill, the plastic is often blown away because of its weight. And then the catastrophe begins. It can hang in trees and plants, enter rivers and streams, fly till the sea and stay in the water.2. Rubbish/LitteringJunk that’s dropped on the street doesn’t stay there. The rain and wind carry plastic waste where it shouldn’t belong: streams, rivers, and through drains. And we all know where drains lead to. The ocean! The illegal practices of waste dumping generate also plastic pollution and have an impact on the plastic surge in our seas.3. Daily productsThere are so many products we use daily. And a lot of them are flushed down the toilets or through the sink. From wet wipes, cotton buds and sanitary products to aluminium and leftover food. When we wash our clothes in the washing machine, microfibres are even released into waterways. Why? Because they are too small to be filtered out. Those microfibres end up being consumed by small marine species. And some of them might even end up in our food chain.Marine pollutionPlastic hurts marine animals who get entangled in larger pieces and mistake smaller pieces for food. This impacts the food chain. Humans eat plastic through the food chain.Who is responsible?WE ARE! Because how does plastic get into the ocean? Due to our daily consumption and acts. Luckily today, different alternatives to plastic exist. If you want to read more about the top 5 of alternatives to plastic packaging, click here.Big changes start with small steps! What will you do to start cutting the plastic in your life?“We all have the power to make a difference.”What can you do?2 important actions you can undertake!Reduce plastic useLook around you… if you have plastic on your desk, table or around you, you must act now! How many plastic things can you see? First yo should be more aware of how and why you use the plastics. Then change your habits by reducing your use of disposable and single-use plastic items. Recycle as much as possible.“Think Reusable — Not Disposable” by pledging to refuse single-use plastics.2. Join the wave — participate in a cleanupVolunteer to pick up marine litter in your local community. The community works together with the common goal of collecting the trash littering.Feeling ambitious? Recruit friends and family to join you in a larger cleanup. If we take action and work together, we can improve the ocean’s health and make trash free seas a reality.“Don’t expect to see a change if you don’t make one”Still not convinced… here’re some crazy factsThe average “working life” of a plastic bag is approximately 15 minutes. Short, right?Every minute, more than 1.000.000 bags are used. Annually? 500 billion plastic bags are used worldwide.There is more microplastic in the ocean than there are stars in the Milky Way.More than 50% of sea turtles already consumed plasticDo you need more facts…?ConclusionIt’s not just about us! Humans created the problem but it impacts all living creatures and the entire planet.Collecting ocean rubbish and picking up trash while running or walking is noble. We must continue our individual and collective efforts, but these activities won’t solve the actual problem. To make serious headway with ocean pollution, a lot of countries will have to participate. We have to put a huge pressure on their governments. On a personal level there are several things we can do: committing to a zero-waste lifestyle, don’t use single-use disposable plastic, and further educating and raising public awareness of the severity of the issue. “The oceans are under threat now as never before in human history”, says David Attenborough. WE MUST ACT NOW!“You cannot escape the responsibility of tomorrow by evading it today“ — Abraham LincolnQuestions?We hope we succeed in giving you more insights on this subject. If you have any questions feel free to reach our Shippr team at “”. You can also connect with the team on Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn!> If you liked what you just read: clap it away, share this post & leave me your comments here or at!> Want to learn more about Shippr? Take a look at> Stay on top of the latest articles, promo codes, and insights from Shippr: you very soon!·RELATED QUESTIONWhat rich people complaints piss off poor people?I used to have a friend who considered himself to be “rich”.Granted, he wore nice expensive clothes, spoke with a fake British accent and considered himself to be upper class, there was just something about him that irked me.Him: You know that I don’t use plastic hangers for my clothes?Me: Oh, why? I just take the plastic ones from work because we give them out to customers anyway. There’s far too many hangers for us to handle so why not just take those?Him: My entire wardrobe is worth four thousand dollars and I’m talking an Armani blazer, my suits, my ties, my Gucci watch and you want me to use a plastic hanger? Hell no, I use wooden hangers for everything.What a struggle.Oh, and the best part.He wasn’t rich. He was living off his parents’ money and the last time I ever spoke to him, he was still struggling to find a job.“Rich” people piss me off more than actual rich people.
Metro Vancouver Officials Want People to Think Before Throwing Out Clothes
Colourful, inexpensive and trendy clothing is so accessible that Joanne Renfer couldn't resist.She'd buy it while grocery shopping or online and when it didn't fit or she didn't like it, she just tossed the clothes in the donation bin with the tag still attached."It's been almost way too convenient and cheap," she said. "I wouldn't even bother to try it on. I would just buy it and take it home. It's not even worth returning them if you don't like them." But then Renfer learned about how much energy and water was used to make the clothes, and where the clothing went when people were done with it.That textile waste is clogging British Columbia landfills, nearing 20 million kilograms a year from Vancouver residents alone, say statistics from the Metro Vancouver regional district.The district launched a campaign Monday to push people to think not just twice but three times before tossing out their clothing.Karen Storry, senior project engineer for Metro Vancouver's Solid Waste Services, said a 2016 waste composition study showed residents throw out about 40,000 metric tonnes of textile waste a year and about half of that is clothing."So if you translate that into per person amounts it's 17 pounds, which doesn't sound like a lot but it's the weight of 44 T-shirts," she said in an interview.People are buying three times more clothes than they did in the 1980s, wearing them less often and a lot of it ends up in the trash, Storry said.While clothing made with natural materials eventually breaks down, those that have plastic or plastic products in them "just sit in the landfill for who knows how long," Storry said.About 60 per cent of the material fibres have plastic in them, including jackets, T-shirts and sweaters, she said."If you see anything with polyester, it has plastic and it's a pretty common fibre in our clothing these days," she said, noting that apart from taking up landfill space, clothes use a lot of energy and water to produce.Metro Vancouver's campaign, "Think Thrice About Your Clothes,"promotes greener options for reducing, repairing and reusing textiles, as well as tips on how to make smart choices when buying new clothes, or even purchasing second-hand or renting clothing.Renfer remembers a time when an outfit was an investment and now she said she's gone back to that mindset."I thought a lot about it and I spent what was to me a lot of money. I didn't have as many outfits and I really looked after them," said the 61-year-old Vancouver real estate agent.Now she only throws away socks and underwear, then donates her unused clothing at least three times a year.She used to buy something almost once a week and was excited about clothing that was "cheap and cheerful." Now she said she's been trying to be more mindful of her purchases."And it was sort of sad to find out that it was a bad thing," she said."We have to rethink how we buy clothes."
Plastic 'nurdles' Found Littering Uk Beaches - Bbc News
A search of 279 beaches around the UK has found that almost three-quarters of them were littered with tiny plastic "nurdles".Volunteers signed up to search their local shoreline, ranging between Shetland and the Scilly Isles, for the lentil-sized pellets, used as a raw material to make plastic products. They can cause damage to such wildlife as birds and fish, which eat them.The findings will be reflected in a government study into microplastics.Campaigners estimate that up to 53 billion of the tiny pellets escape into the UK's environment each year. This happens during the manufacture, transport or use of plastic products. The nurdles are often spilt accidentally into rivers and oceans or fall into drains where they are washed out to sea.Experts warn nurdles can soak up chemical pollutants from their surroundings and then release toxins into the animals that eat them.The Great Winter Nurdle Hunt survey was carried out by 600 volunteers over a weekend in early February.The largest number recorded were found at Widemouth Bay, Cornwall, where 33 volunteers collected some 127,500 pellets found on a 100-metre stretch of beach.But there were some beach hunts that yielded no nurdles at all, including Spurn Point in Yorkshire and Sully beach in south Wales. Nurdles are one of the main sources of "primary microplastics" - small pieces of plastic which have come from larger items broken down into little bits - in European seas.Madeleine Berg of Fidra, a Scottish environmental charity which organised the hunt, said it showed action was needed. "Simple precautionary measures can help spillages and ensure nurdles don't end up in our environment," she said."We are asking the UK government to ensure best practice is in place along the full plastic supply chain, and any further nurdle pollution is stopped."One of the companies that has signed up to Fidra's Operation Clean Sweep is Scottish hauliers, John Mitchell, who distribute plastic pellets. Each of their transporters are fitted with spill kits and black bin bags to collect spilled pellets, which are then recycled. Plastic oceans: What do we know?The beaches where Lego washes upThe findings come after another campaign by Fidra, which saw Johnson & Johnson announce that their cotton buds will no longer have plastic stems.As of this week, the multinational company will change their buds from plastic to paper in almost half the world's countries, including the whole of Europe, in an attempt to cut marine pollution.Plastic stems are one of the most common items of litter found on UK beaches. They end up in our oceans after the cotton buds - which are not supposed to be flushed down the toilet - enter the sewage system.Waitrose, John Lewis, Marks and Spencer and the Body Shop are among the brands already selling non-plastic cotton buds. A further 10 retailers including Tesco, Boots and Mothercare have said they will change from plastic to paper stems by the end of 2017.
Forum Calls for Ban on More Plastic Items
The Forum for Good Governance (FGG), in a letter to Chief Secretary S.K. Joshi, expressed serious concern over the rampant use of single-use plastic carry bags, and requested the government to take action to impose ban on 10 kinds of plastic products in the State, as curbing the carry bags alone is not a feasible option.Delineating at length about the harmful effects of plastic dumped in the open, the letter says it is impossible to detect the manufacture and use of plastic carry bags less than 50 microns in thickness. Technology for production of plastic sheet or carry bags is the same for those less than or more than 50 micron thickness, and people cannot know the exact thickness, the letter said. Civic bodies are unable to cope with the hazards posed by plastic waste, as people throw it indiscriminately. States such as Karnataka have imposed ban on many items as there are alternatives made with biodegradable materials, the letter noted.The National Green Tribunal, too, has upheld the legal validity of total ban on plastics imposed by Karnataka, and the Supreme Court has refused to stay the NGT order, in response to an appeal by plastic industry. Maharashtra, too, has imposed a total ban, and is enforcing it, the letter said, before requesting the government to ban carry bags, banners, buntings, flexis, flags, plates, cups, spoons, cling films, sheets on the dining table, besides items made of thermocol and use of plastic micro beads.
Plastics Explained, From a to Z
The world of plastic contains many confusing terms, as we discovered while reporting on and researching the topic for our June issue of National Geographic magazine. Even the most well-intentioned plastic consumer may have a hard time sorting out "good" plastics from bad. So we've prepared a short glossary to help demystify some of the terminology.Additives Chemicals added during the manufacture of plastic products to make them stronger, safer, more or less flexible, and impart a range of other desired characteristics are known as additives. Common additives include water repellents, flame retardants, stiffeners, softeners, pigments, and UV inhibitors. Some of these additives may contain potentially toxic substances.Biodegradable A biodegradable product should break down into natural raw materials by microorganisms within a reasonable period of time. "Biodegrade" is more thorough than "break down" or "degrade"-when many plastics today are said to "break down," they just become smaller pieces of plastic. There is no widely accepted standard for labeling a product "biodegradable," meaning that there is no clear way to define what it means, and manufacturers apply it inconsistently. Some states are banning the term until a clear standard is agreed upon.Bioplastics This very flexible term is currently used for a whole spectrum of plastics, encompassing both fossil-fuel- and biologically based plastics that are biodegradable and biologically-based plastics that are not biodegradable. In other words, there is no guarantee that a "bioplastic" will be made from a non-toxic, non-fossil-fuel source, or that it will biodegrade.This graphic from European Bioplastics lists several of the main types of bioplastics.Compostable For an object to be compostable, it must be able to break down into its natural elements (or biodegrade) within a "reasonable composting environment," which is variable. Some plastics are compostable, though most won't compost in a typical backyard compost pile. Instead, they require much higher heat at a specific duration in order to fully biodegrade.According to Rhodes Yepsen of the Biodegradable Products Institute , "Standards and certifications do exist for compostable plastics (those that biodegrade in a composting environment), but most are only certified for industrial-scale composting, which reaches at least 130 degrees... Compostable plastics are part of residential and commercial food scraps composting programs in major cities like San Francisco, Seattle, Minneapolis, and New York, but these programs are not available everywhere, and some composters accept food only, fearing contamination." Ghost nets/fishing/gear Fishing gear-much of it made of plastic-that has been abandoned, discarded, or lost is often called ghost gear. This includes nets, lines, traps, buoys, and other material. This debris can entangle and kill sea life, including turtles, whales, sharks, dolphins, seals, fish, and seabirds. It can also smother coral.One estimate says that hundreds of thousands of tons of fishing gear are left in the ocean each year.Microplastics Microplastics are plastic particles that measure less than five millimeters in their longest dimension. There are two types of microplastics: primary and secondary.Primary microplastics include resin pellets that are melted down to manufacture plastic products-also known as nurdles-and microbeads added to products such as cosmetics, soaps, and toothpaste as abrasives. Secondary microplastics result from the fragmentation of larger plastic items. Microfibers are individual plastic filaments that are woven together to make fabrics like polyester, nylon, acrylic, and so on. Regular wear-and-tear and laundering release microfibers into the air and water.Ocean garbage patches Thanks to the action of ocean currents, marine debris often collects within ocean gyres (see below), forming what's known as a garbage "patch." In the largest gyres, these "patches" can span a million square miles. The majority of the material is plastic.The term patch is a misnomer as it suggests trash so thick it resembles floating islands. Actually, the patches look more like a peppery soup, because most of the debris is microplastics and because the trash is found throughout the water column, rather than just floating on the surface. One of the largest concentrations of marine debris is called the Great Pacific Garbage Patch (or Eastern Pacific Garbage Patch) and is located between California and Hawaii in the North Pacific Ocean.Ocean gyres There are five major gyres on Earth, which are large systems of rotating ocean currents created by global winds and tides: the North and South Pacific Gyres, the North and South Atlantic Gyres, and the Indian Ocean Gyre. Gyres collect and concentrate marine debris into large garbage patches. All the major gyres currently have garbage patches, and new patches are frequently being found in smaller gyres.PET PET, or polyethylene terephthalate, is one of the most widely used polymers, or plastics. It is a clear, strong and lightweight plastic belonging to the polyester family. It is used to make common household items such as fibers, fabrics, beverage bottles, and food jars.Polymers Plastics, also called polymers, are produced by linking together small building blocks, or unit cells. Those building blocks, which chemists call monomers, are made up of groups of atoms that are derived from natural products or by the synthesis of primary chemicals from oil, natural gas, or coal. For some plastics, such as polyethylene, the repeat unit can be just one carbon atom and two hydrogen atoms. For other plastics, such as nylons, the repeat unit can involve 38 or more atoms. Once assembled, the chains of monomers become strong, light, and durable, which makes them so useful-and so problematic when they're disposed of carelessly.Single-stream recycling A system in which all recyclables-newspaper, cardboard, plastic, metal, glass-are placed in a single bin for recycling. The recyclables are sorted at the recycling center by machines and by hand rather than by homeowners. This approach has pros and cons. Supporters say it increases participation in recycling by the public, but detractors say it leads to more contamination-causing some recyclables to end up in landfills-and is more expensive to process.Single-use plastics Plastic products designed to be used only once, such as thin grocery bags and the film packaging that seals everything from food to toys, is known as single-use plastic. Some 40 percent of all non-fiber plastics produced are used for packaging. Environmentalists often encourage people to reduce their use of single-use plastics and to instead opt for more durable multi-use items, such as metal water bottles or cotton totes.
Plastic Contract Manufacturing
Plastic contract manufacturing is the process of manufacturing plastic products on a contract basis. There are many contract manufacturers of plastic products, rubber products and other specialty chemical products. They produce fabricated and extruded plastic products. The plastic fabrication facility of most of the plastic contract manufacturers include the latest Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) routers, mills and lathes for top quality machining of plastic parts and products. Plastic contract manufacturers handle plastic fabrication, CNC machining and CNC turning projects. They usually make plastic products from both natural and synthetic materials. Contract manufacturing of plastic provides plastic products of high abrasion resistance, high tensile strength, high tear strength and good oil resistance.Plastic contract manufacturers usually make plastic products, components and assemblies at the lowest possible prices. They work together with their customers to determine the materials needed, time taken, design specifications, production developments and certifications required. Contract manufacturers of plastics come up with plastic products in any size, design or quantity, according to the needs of the customer. Most contract manufacturers have a full range of services for design engineering and manufacturing of plastic products.Plastic contract manufacturing mainly focuses on the quality, repeatability and performance of plastic products. Some contract manufacturers specialize in producing the plastic components for high precision electronic and electrical products, consumer products, automobile products and parts. Many of them also manufacture the press components and precision components of other engineering plastics. Plastic contract manufacturers usually manufacture containers, jars, jigs and fixtures. Generally, contract manufactures use advanced technologies in injection blow molding and compression molding to produce high precision components for electronics and electrical plastics. The materials used in plastic contract manufacturing include low density polyethylene (LDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and high density polyethylene (HDPE).Injection molding is widely used for thermoplastics. This process avoids the hardening of plastic in the machine. Injection molding helps to produce more accurate moldings having better control on the material usage. Many contract manufacturers of plastic specialize in the manufacturing dies for injection molded products such as plastic compounds, fan regulators, fan regulator switches, electrical rotary switches, fuse boxes and other special purpose machine parts.
What Is in My Plastic Reducing Starter Kit
In my last post I introduced my plastic waste reducing experiment. I'm pleased to report that roughly three weeks in, our household waste across our black (landfill) and brown (recycling) bins is already close to our target of half what it used to be. I'm even more pleased that this experiment has got other people trying the same, and inspired much discussion on Facebook. It has also inspired me to keep going, and share more about what's working or not.As part of this experiment, I've been trying out a lot of alternatives to plastic products, that would usually result in some form of plastic waste. It's not been particularly easy to source all of these products, and in some cases they are better bought in bulk. To provide a shortcut for others, I have put together a 'Free yourself from Plastics box', which I've been sharing with some people as gifts. In this post I'll describe the contents and where to buy items.Recap of the photo of the box here:Resusable (E-Coffee) cup - Made from bamboo and dishwasher safe, with various beautiful designs. We've found that having a few of these means we can grab one or two when heading out on a day trip, whilst others are in the dishwasher. Those who know my husband Geoff, know he loves his coffee, and he was burning through throw-away cups, which is now no longer the case.Beeswax wrap (Abeego) - These are reusable wraps that can be used to keep leftovers fresh (instead of cling film or food bags). I've also taken them shopping and had cheese (for example) put directly into the wrap. They are not cheap, but can be used for months on end. Available here.Reusable food container / net bags - I've started taking containers with me when I shop, to hold smaller items of food, instead of taking the plastic bags provided. The net bags are for bread / veg and stainless steel containers are for fish / meat and can be put straight in the fridge. I've put my old plastic storage boxes aside as the more I read about plastics in general, the more worried I became about plasticisers potentially leaking into food. My old plastic boxes won't be thrown, but used for non food storage.Washable dishcloth - no more J-cloths. The washable one in the pic was knitted by Gill, my mother-in-law. We have a couple and wash one out every other day or so. I've found a lovely lady nearby who is knitting me several more to go in the boxes - I can share her details for anybody interested.Compostable dishwashing - In the pic above there is a coconut fibre scourer and a natural loufah (for non-stick items). There is also a brush with a replaceable head, made from natural plant fibres. They seem to last longer than the plastic scourers that we'd throw in the bin at least once a week, and can be composted after use. [Probably worth saying here that we are forunate to be able to compost our own food waste, so these will be added to our compost mix]Solid shampoo and soap - The ones in the pic are from a company called Wild Olive, and are wonderful smelling and packed without plastic. A few weeks ago I suspended using any liquid shampoo or shower gel and opted for these instead. I love the solid shampoo and I won't be going back. I do still use liquid conditioner, but less than I did, and for that I've turned to the make Faith in Nature, which can be bought in bulk (or refilled locally).Natural toothbrush - These Humble Brushes are made from bamboo (although the bristles are nylon) and come in cardboard packaing. I like to replace my toothbrush quite regularly, and for our girls, who chew as well as brush, theirs get replaced often (children's versions are available), so this has cut down associated plastic waste.Personal care products in cardboard packaging- What's shown above is a stick of deodorant that comes in a cardboard wrapper. There are loads of additional products such as lip balm and mosturiser made by Organic Essence (sold here). [I was a bit dismayed when bought online, the cardboard came in an outer wrapper of cellophane, however, I have complained and am hoping this will change.]. I've also shown natural cotton buds, made from bamboo, that are increasingly available locally.Reusable straws - not shown here, but we've bought two types, a stainless steel version and a bamboo version. Our girls love them and we now have a couple in our day bag (and take to our local pub!).If you want more information on these products or have alternative suggestions on the above, then please drop me a line·RELATED QUESTIONWhat rich people complaints piss off poor people?I used to have a friend who considered himself to be "rich".Granted, he wore nice expensive clothes, spoke with a fake British accent and considered himself to be upper class, there was just something about him that irked me.Him: You know that I don't use plastic hangers for my clothes?Me: Oh, why? I just take the plastic ones from work because we give them out to customers anyway. There's far too many hangers for us to handle so why not just take those?Him: My entire wardrobe is worth four thousand dollars and I'm talking an Armani blazer, my suits, my ties, my Gucci watch and you want me to use a plastic hanger? Hell no, I use wooden hangers for everything.What a struggle.Oh, and the best part.He wasn't rich. He was living off his parents' money and the last time I ever spoke to him, he was still struggling to find a job."Rich" people piss me off more than actual rich people.
Why Do We Only Talk About Plastic Carry Bags and Not of Other Plastic Products?
tricky problem. research onto yahoo. that may help!1. Why plastic products manufactured in china?This situation is changing for some products particularly when the volume is not particularly high. Costs are starting to increase in China as the local population starts to demand higher salaries.2. What are the best places to buy household plastic products such as hampers, dish basins, garbage pails, etc and which brand are best?I have bought such things at dollar stores or deep discount stores and you get exactly what you pay for, cheap products that chip, break and crack. Just to need replacing sooner than later. For these type of products, but the best brand so you have it for a good long time. Rubbermaid makes good quality products that will last. You may even be able to go to a Rubbermaid website for your shopping. Or, go to Target or other department stores. I am not sure Walmart has good quality merchandise. Like Home Depot and Lowe's brand name products which are made especially to sell at a lower price point, they are not of the same quality as their other products that they manufacturer. So, when price checking, be sure you are comparing the exact same merchandise. A cheaper product is not necessarily a better value. I happen to have the things you mention in a "Fuller Brush" brand from some relatives who are in their 90's, who bought them long ago. But I do not think Fuller Brush is in business any longer. But, I have to tell you, the buckets, brushes, mops and brooms are die hard products!!3. Find Sova Plastic Products Manufacturing comapny Plastic blow molding injection molding?Graven would not basically propose carved. It skill without life. A graven idol is a god which neither has life or delivers life. An idol skill without life. the authentic residing God is Jehovah. the 2d of the ten commandments is an element of the 1st. have not got the different Gods different than Jehovah. All worship belongs to Him4. Should we outlaw quick use plastic products?Socialist drivel. i do no longer choose the government telling me what freaking bags i will and can not use. in case you probably did some certainly analyze, quite of regurgitating what different persons say, you will possibly discover out that plastic bags are rather "greener" than paper bags interior the grand scheme of issues. It takes lots extra capability to offer and transport paper bags than it does plastic bags. As for reusable bags; in case you have a tendency to purchase many products (which incorporate grocery procuring for an outstanding sized relatives) you will ought to tote around a 0.5 dozen or extra bags with you whenever you pass out. that gets previous quickly. Then there is the concern of cleansing the baggage. you will ought to toss them interior the showering device each and every so often which additionally makes use of extra supplies. i do no longer recognize how people wo not be able to look a the super image5. What is styrene, the chemical compound involved in a gas leak near Visakhapatnam?In Vishakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh more than 10 people have died due to poisonous gas leaks. More than 800 people have been admitted to the hospital due to breathing problems. The condition of many of the sick remains critical. They also include children. Gas leakage has been overcome. "Styrene is the name of the gas that causes havoc":-The gas causing havoc in Visakhapatnam is called styrene. It is also called styrol and vinyl benzene. It is a colorless or light yellow liquid which is very dangerous. History of styrene is 181 years oldStyrene was first recognized in the world by scientists in Europe about 181 years ago. In 1839, German scientist Eduard Simon was able to isolate in his laboratory a volatile liquid from yaragin, a resin from a tree named American sweetgum. Accidentally, the substance they reached gave them the name "stylol" (now styrene). He also noticed that when the styloles were exposed to air, light, or heat, it gradually turned into a hard, rubber-like substance, which they called "styler oxide". In 1845 German chemist Augusthoffman and his student John Baileith gave the Stylin formula which became known as C8H8. It consists of 8 molecules of carbon and 8 molecules of hydrogen. About 99% of industrial resins are made from styrene. These are the six major ones: polystyrene (50%), styrene-butadiene rubber (15%), unsaturated polyester resins (glass) (12%), styrene-butadiene latex (11%), acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (10%) and Styrene-acrylonitrile (1%).Sweet smell gas chemistryStyrene is an organic compound and is also known as ethenyl benzene, vinyl benzene, and phenylethylene. Its chemical formula is C6H5CH = CH2. This most popular organic solvent is a colorless or light yellow oily liquid like benzene-borne water, and this gives off the gas.This liquid easily mixes in air in a gas form at room temperature and has a sweet odor, although in very large quantities, the odor begins to suffocate. Styrene makes polystyrene and many other co-polymers that are used to make various polymer products (plastic, fiber glass, rubber, pipe). Where is it usedStyrene is most commonly used in packaging materials, electrical insulation, in-house insulation, fiber glass, plastic pipes, automobile parts, tea cups, carpets, etc. This gas air, water or soil can come from anywhere in your body.Styrene gas remains in the smoke emanating from companies making plastic products. Apart from this, it is also found emanating from the smoke from the vehicles, cigarette smoke or photocopy machine. In cities where the number of vehicles is high, people are indirectly disturbed by this gas.Immediate impact on breathingIt is difficult to breathe when styrene gas enters the nose. With boredom and eye irritation may occur. When inhaled, it affects our respiratory system within minutes and can cause vomiting, irritation and skin rashes. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the short-term exposure to gas can be fatal for young children and the elderly. . Eye irritation, gastrointestinal effects (such as upset stomach) and irritation of the upper surface of the tissue can occur. It has the ability to destroy the lining of the tissues of the soft organs of the body and can cause bleeding. This can cause unconsciousness and even death within a few minutes. Prolonged effectEven those who survive the fatal exposure to styrene may later have to live with its toxic effects. Being a neurotoxin, it has effects on the nervous system and can cause headaches, fatigue, weakness and depression, nervous system dysfunction. Due to its long effect, diseases like numbness of hands and feet, loss of eyes, hearing loss and dermatitis are seen on the skin. Immediate treatmentThe only way to treat the effect of gas is to wash the skin and eyes with water and to go to breathing support by immediately starting medical therapy in case you go in with breath.South Korea's companyThe company from which the gas leaked is from South Korea. It has been operating since 1961. The company manufactures LG polymers polystyrene and various plastics that are used to make different products such as toys. In the end I think you understand the whole concept of what is styrene gas is and how harmful it is that leaked from LG polymer plant.Thank you,.......What is styrene, the chemical compound involved in a gas leak near Visakhapatnam?
Things You May Want to Know About Plastic Products
An Introduction to plastic productsThe dynamic scraped surface heat exchanger (DSSHE) was designed to face some problems found in other types of heat exchangers. They increase heat transfer by:removing the fouling layers, increasing turbulence in case of high viscosity flow, and avoiding the generation of ice and other process by-products. DSSHEs incorporate an internal mechanism which periodically removes the product from the heat transfer wall.Which country has announced to ban single use plastics from 2021? of plastic productsCanada has announced to ban single use plastics from 2021. Plastic pollution is a global challenge that requires immediate action. Plastic waste ends up in our landfills and incinerators, litters our parks and beaches, and pollutes our rivers, lakes, and oceans, entangling and killing turtles, fish, and marine mammals.Less than 10 per cent of plastic used in Canada gets recycled. Without a change in course, Canadians will throw away an estimated $11 billion worth of plastic materials each year by 2030.Canada, Prime Minister, Justin Trudeau, announced that the Government of Canada is taking additional steps to reduce Canada's plastic waste, support innovation, and promote the use of affordable and safe alternatives. Working with governments and businesses across Canada, the Government of Canada will:ban harmful single-use plastics as early as 2021 (such as plastic bags, straws, cutlery, plates, and stir sticks) where supported by scientific evidence and warranted, and take other steps to reduce pollution from plastic products and packagingwork with provinces and territories to introduce standards and targets for companies that manufacture plastic products or sell items with plastic packaging so they become responsible for their plastic waste.These measures will be grounded in scientific evidence and will align, where appropriate, with similar actions being taken in the European Union and other countries. They will also support the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment's development of an action plan to implement the Canada-wide Strategy on Zero Plastic Waste.With the longest coastline in the world and one-quarter of the world's freshwater, Canada has a unique responsibility - and opportunity - to lead in reducing plastic pollution. From launching the Ocean Plastics Charter at the 2018 G7 Summit to investing in new Canadian technologies that turn plastic waste into valuable resources and can make our economy stronger and take an important step toward protecting wildlife and the places Canadians lovePlastic recycling channels should be improved right now of plastic productsEven after entering the garbage collection process, the value of the takeaway meal boxes is not high. According to industry insiders, plastic polystyrene recycling prices are low, and recycling costs are high. Recyclers are generally reluctant to fill up with take-out food boxes that are oily. Even if they come back, they must be time-consuming and labor-intensive. Therefore, plastic lunch boxes are not to be seen. Whether it is garbage recycling companies or the city's "pilots of scavenging waste," they all "have no feelings" about recycling plastic products.At the same time, China has not yet formed a complete recycling system. As a low-value-added recyclable material, plastic lunch boxes are difficult to enter into recycling channels for renewable resources. Even if consumers take the initiative to classify plastic waste, because the recycling system is not perfect, sanitation trucks may also mix and dispose of various types of waste when they transport waste.Since it is difficult to recover, plastic lunch boxes can only be "mixed" with municipal solid waste, enter the waste disposal system, and ultimately be burned or landfilled as ordinary waste. However, if the different plastic components are burned together, air pollution can easily occur; before the landfill, the larger plastic wastes are usually simply incinerated, resulting in large amounts of exhaust emissions. Therefore, letting plastic lunch boxes enter the waste disposal system is not a permanent cure.In fact, the "white pollution" brought by plastic products is not unique to China, and countries in the world are facing the same problems. If there is a relatively sound waste classification system, plastic meal boxes and other products can be recycled efficiently through plastics melting machine. However, the data shows that only 14% of the world's plastic packaging has been recycled.In terms of the cost of recycling the lunch boxes, there are also experiences and lessons worth learning. For example, the cost of recycling food containers in Japan is borne by the consumer; in Europe and America, the processing fee is borne by the manufacturer. In China, Shanghai implemented the "Interim Measures for the Management of Disposable Plastic Lunch Boxes" in June 2000. The administrative department will collect 3 cents for each lunch box from manufacturers who produce disposable plastic lunch boxes as a recycling fee. However, the implementation of this system was not smooth and was abolished in May 2014
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