PPM/PWM Controlled, Closed-loop Stepper Motor? [closed]

The reason you have not been able to find anything is likely because using a potentiometer (vs. a shaft encoder) is both old-school technology, a vanishing category of component available, and a dangerous combination unless you modify the pot to allow for continuous rotation. You did not reveal why you think you want to use a potentiometer instead of a more modern solution? Your requirement seems arbitrary, counter-intuitive and extremely limiting (which you have discovered already).

1. Can I drive a stepper motor with a regular MCU?

You wo not find any decent project with MCU that controls the stepper motor, because is not made for it. There are lots of dedicated stepper motor ASIC that can control current, voltage of stepper windings to work properly. The Atmel MCU is just too slow to control, a DSP perhaps can do it, but that would be expensive. ASICs are built of discrete components: comparators, latches, transistors, clocks, etc like L297 L298 to newer Alllegro, ST,.. drivers. As said not a job for MCU indeed, with it you just send the setpoints: step pulses.

2. Could I control a DiY time lapse dolly with an Arduino controller and stepper motor?

arduino uno is dazzling starter platform although that's rather constrained in terms of I/O. although there are different arduino boards with extra I/O (arduino mega and a few clones). i does not use first option, for action you like direct/quickly I/O. your stepper boards could desire to be designed/configured to apply CW/CCW or pulse and direction instructions (2 pins in line with motor) yet for six vehicles this continues to be 12 pins that's a million/2 of all I/O. the different option is to decide for some thing somewhat kickass like STM32 discovery boards. they value $10-15, have much extra I/O and processing skill (32-bit, much extra RAM, 5-10x greater clock and so on. ). F3 and F4 have FPU. no longer undesirable for $14. there's a turn away inspite of the undeniable fact that. progression application is not loose (and not low value). "loose" variations in basic terms convey jointly 32k so one wo not be able to take finished good thing about the gadget. the different option is to apply chips from TI via fact TI promises loose application for their products. verify stelaris products. the factor is there are a number of products on the industry and it grew to become into on no account extra value-effective and extra ordinary to get progression equipment

3. simple question about stepper motor driver?

it is possible to design chip that will have brains as well as power and sometimes this is done too but it is inflexible. therefore most of the time it is much more practical to separate functionality. you may have a need for particular size stepper motor but someone else would rather use those outputs for something else. if there was MANY people asking for PIC with built in stepper motor driver of one common size, i am sure someone would make it. the question is how many of them you want to buy? probably not more than few... because the key is flexibility and everyone's needs are different, companies make component performing ONE function the best way it can. then you as a designer of a system need to pick all pieces and put them together (which is extra work), but - you can choose them based on your exact needs and application. main objective for microcontrollers (PIC included) is to provide the smarts. to be universal or as flexible as possible, they need to be able to process information and use low power and therefore output levels are low. yes you can turn on an LED using just PIC output but that's about it (and an LED is a very very very small load). for 99.9% of other things you need peripherals such as other chips or discrete circuits. exact type will depend on application; you need to drive small stepper - add stepper driver IC you need to drive bunch of LEDs - add LED multiplexer IC you need to make toy sounds on speaker - add audio amplifier IC you need to drive large loads - add relay driver IC same goes for input (you need to keep track of orientation - add gyroscope or compass IC etc).

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A Powerful Pull/rotate Device That Provides a Certain (controllable) Force?
A Powerful Pull/rotate Device That Provides a Certain (controllable) Force?
If I understand your question correctly, it seems to me that you are looking for a DC torque motor (brushed or brushless) with a suitable sensor attached to the load or to the output shaft. The sensor measures whatever it is what you want to control, you need a processor to implement the control system algorithms, and a power amplifier to deliver electrical power to the motorI don't know how to call the device I'm looking for (or need to create), maybe you can help me with terminology too so I can at least search..I want something that either rotates or pulls with a certain (controllable) force, i.e. not like a servo/stepper motor which control position, but on the contrary, it should be able to "catch up" to the moving load fast or stay still if the load is too heavy, but provide a steady pull of a certain force. Do these things exist and if so, what are they called? Do you know of any such thing that does it out of the box?Btw I'm looking for something that pulls in the range of 100-200 lb, so the constant tension things from sewing machines won't work :)·OTHER ANSWER:I don't know how to call the device I'm looking for (or need to create), maybe you can help me with terminology too so I can at least search..I want something that either rotates or pulls with a certain (controllable) force, i.e. not like a servo/stepper motor which control position, but on the contrary, it should be able to "catch up" to the moving load fast or stay still if the load is too heavy, but provide a steady pull of a certain force. Do these things exist and if so, what are they called? Do you know of any such thing that does it out of the box?Btw I'm looking for something that pulls in the range of 100-200 lb, so the constant tension things from sewing machines won't work :)
Brushless DC Outrunner Motor Control
Brushless DC Outrunner Motor Control
Brushless DC Outrunner Motor ControlBrushless DC means exactly that - a DC motor with brushless commutation. The controller's job is to switch the phases in and out at the correct rotor angles (not frequency) just like the commutator in a brushed motor. The motor spins at whatever speed it wants to, depending on supply voltage and load. If the motor has sensors then the controller can be very simple, since it just has to read the sensors and turn on the appropriate phases depending on rotor angle. It has no direct control over commutation frequency, but it can 'control' motor speed indirectly by varying the effective supply voltage (using either a regulator or PWM).Sensorless controllers have a harder job because they must monitor the back-emf waveform for zero crossings. At startup there is no back-emf so the ESC cannot detect the rotor's position. To get the rotor spinning it pulses the phases at low power like a stepper motor, gradually increasing speed until it gets a strong enough back-emf to switch into synchronous operation. During this startup period only, the sensorless ESC controls motor speed by varying commutation frequency. However since it is basically dragging the rotor up to speed, any sudden change in load can cause it to loose sync. Also the motor may start in reverse, then it has to stop and try again. This may result in the rotor jumping back and forth a few times until the ESC sees a good back-emf.— — — — — —If I have a stepper motor on an Arduino, what would happen if I don't use a stepper driver with it? Will the motor work?You mean connecting a motor directly to the output of the microcontroller (ie the Arduino, which is actually an Atmel microcontrolleR) ?Donu2019t. Even if the motor can start from the 5V (or 3.3V depending on type) that the microcontroller outputs, it will try to draw much more current than what the microcontroller can output (ie. its effective resistance is very low) and thus could damage the controller. (Ie. you practically short-circuit the arduinou2019s output).If I have a stepper motor on an Arduino, what would happen if I do not use a stepper driver with it? Will the motor work?.— — — — — —driving stepper motors problems?The optocoupling wo not solve your problem I think. But I assure you it CAN be solved, if you pay attention to three things: current loops, spike control and coupling elimination. In a previous life I worked on daisywheel printers which use steppers, solenoids, motors and low-level optical resolvers - all routed together in flexible cable. And it all worked fine. First, you need to isolate the stepper driver on its own supply loop. Star-tie its power and ground back at the supply, separate from the MCU. You can also filter the motor supply to catch differential and common-mode noise. Next, you can also slow down the edge rate to the driver using an RC damper. This will reduce the spikes. Very important. Also consider using a lighter "hold" voltage when the stepper is parked vs. when it's operating. This will save considerable power. Also, it looks like they recommend additional freewheeling diodes in the data sheet (link below). These will help catch the back-emf locally closer to the motor. I would say it's a good idea (I've always seen them used.) Finally, examine the routing of your sense wires. Are they subject to noise coupling from the motor wires? If so, you can reroute them or shield them. Ground them back at the MCU and also provide their supply from the MCU too. This prevents forming another current loop. Another measure you can use is current-mode or differential signaling to reject common-mode noise. You will need some kind of buffer for that.— — — — — —What is a Stepper Motor? Step Angle, Advantages & Disadvantages-The name Stepper Motor itself shows that the rotor movement is in the form of various steps or discrete steps. It is also known as Stepping Motor. The number of pulses fed into the controller circuit determines the angular rotation of the motor. Each input pulse produces one step of the angular movement. The drive is considered as an analog to digital converter. It has an inbuilt logic, which causes appropriate windings to be energised and de-energized by the solid state switches in the required sequence. There are three types of stepping motor based on the rotor arrangements. They are as follows:- The variable reluctance motor is divided into two types. They are known as Single stack variable reluctance motor and Multi-stack variable reluctance motor. Definition: Step angle is defined as the angle which the rotor of a stepper motor moves when one pulse is applied to the input of the stator. The positioning of a motor is decided by the step angle and is expressed in degrees. The resolution or the step number of a motor is the number of steps it makes in one revolution of the rotor. Smaller the step angle higher the resolution of the positioning of the stepper motor. The accuracy of positioning of the objects by the motor depends on the resolution. Higher the resolution greater will be the accuracy. Some precision motors can make 1000 steps in one revolution with a step angle of 0.36 degrees. A standard motor will have a step angle of 1.8 degrees with 200 steps per revolution. The various step angles like 90, 45 and 15 degrees are common in simple motors. The number of phases can vary from two to six. Small steps angle can be obtained by using slotted pole pieces. The various benefits of the Stepping Motor are as follows:- • The motor is simple in construction, reliable. • At the standstill condition, the motor has full torque. • The motors are less costly. • The stepper motor has an excellent and accurate starting, stopping and reversing response. The various disadvantages of the stepping motor are as follows:- • The motor uses more current as compared to the DC motor. • At the higher speed, the value of torque reduces. • At the high speed, the control is not possible.
Classifying Method of Control of 3D Printers?
Classifying Method of Control of 3D Printers?
The question is if robots classification terminology the textbook sketches applies to 3D printing?Servos (closed loop) are used in robots to guarantee position (you don't want to accumulate an error after repetitive movement), most 3D printers use open loop steppers that are instructed on a point to point basis through G-code instructions, implying that the use of servos is not a "requirement" for point to point control.It is a requirement if you want to be absolutely sure that the position is reached. In 3D printing where the loads are generally low, this requirement is frequently dropped. But, there are printers that use servo control. Note that many CNC machines (operating at much higher loads than a 3D printer) even don't use servo's but (open loop) steppers, these are generally larger and more powerful (more torque)Is there a classification of method of control most (FDM) 3D printers fall under?From a 1986robotics textbookref I was reading they defined three classes of control:1) Pick and place2) Point to point3) Continuous pathHowever, both point to point and continuous path control are stated as requiring servo motors.I know that the majority of 3D printers are actuated with stepper motors as opposed to servo. Does the continuous path classification still apply? Or is there another classification?ref - Todd, D.J.(Ed.):Fundamentals of Robot Technology: An Introduction to Industrial Robots, Teleoperators and Robot Vehicles - Kogan Page 1986·OTHER ANSWER:Is there a classification of method of control most (FDM) 3D printers fall under?From a 1986robotics textbookref I was reading they defined three classes of control:1) Pick and place2) Point to point3) Continuous pathHowever, both point to point and continuous path control are stated as requiring servo motors.I know that the majority of 3D printers are actuated with stepper motors as opposed to servo. Does the continuous path classification still apply? Or is there another classification?ref - Todd, D.J.(Ed.):Fundamentals of Robot Technology: An Introduction to Industrial Robots, Teleoperators and Robot Vehicles - Kogan Page 1986
Whether Servo Motor Control Can Replace Stepper Motor Control, the Difference Between AC Servo Motor
Whether Servo Motor Control Can Replace Stepper Motor Control, the Difference Between AC Servo Motor
Servo motor refers to the engine that controls the operation of mechanical components in the servo system. It is an indirect speed change device of auxiliary motor. The servo motor can control the speed and position accuracy very accurately, and can convert the voltage signal into torque and speed to drive the control object. The rotor speed of the servo motor is controlled by the input signal and can respond quickly. In the automatic control system, it is used as an actuator, and has the characteristics of small electromechanical time constant, high linearity and starting voltage. It can convert the received electrical signal into angular displacement or angular speed output on the motor shaft. It is divided into DC and AC servo motors. Its main feature is that when the signal voltage is zero, there is no rotation, and the speed decreases at a uniform speed with the increase of torque.The structure of AC servo motor can be divided into two parts: stator and rotor. The structure of the stator is basically the same as that of the resolver, and two-phase windings with an electrical angle of 90 degrees are also placed in the stator core. One group is excitation winding and the other group is control winding. AC servo motor is a two-phase AC motor. When the AC servo motor is used, a constant excitation voltage UF is applied at both ends of the excitation winding and a control voltage UK is applied at both ends of the control winding. When voltage is applied to the stator winding, the servo motor will soon rotate. The current connected to the excitation winding and control winding generates a rotating magnetic field in the motor. The rotation of the rotating magnetic field determines the rotation of the motor. When the voltage applied to any winding is reversed, the direction of the rotating magnetic field and the direction of the motor will change.Stepping motor is an open-loop control motor that converts electric pulse signal into angular displacement or linear displacement. It is the main executive element in modern digital program control system and is widely used. In the case of non overload, the speed and stop position of the motor only depend on the frequency and number of pulses of the pulse signal, and are not affected by the load change. When the stepping driver receives a pulse signal, it drives the stepping motor to rotate a fixed angle in the set direction, called "step angle", and its rotation runs step by step at a fixed angle. The angular displacement can be controlled by controlling the number of pulses, so as to achieve the purpose of accurate positioning; At the same time, the speed and acceleration of motor rotation can be controlled by controlling the pulse frequency, so as to achieve the purpose of speed regulation.Stepper motor is a kind of induction motor. Its working principle is to use electronic circuit to supply power when DC is changed into component. Polyphase timing control current. When this current is used to supply power to stepper motor, stepper motor can work normally. The driver is time-sharing power supply for stepper motor. Polyphase timing controller.Although the stepper motor has been widely used, the stepper motor can not be used like the ordinary DC motor and AC motor. It must be composed of double ring pulse signal and power driving circuit before it can be used in the control system. Therefore, it is not easy to use stepping motor well. It involves many professional knowledge such as machinery, motor, electronics and computer. As an actuator, stepping motor is one of the key products of mechatronics, which is widely used in various automatic control systems. With the development of microelectronics and computer technology, the demand for stepping motor is increasing day by day, which is applied in various fields of national economy.Can servo motor control replace stepper motor controlIn specific applications, when the terminal load is stable, the action is simple and basically runs at low speed, the stepper motor with low cost and easy control is the most suitable; However, when the terminal load fluctuation range is large, the action is simple and basically runs at low speed, if the stepping motor is selected, it will face a series of troubles, because the stepping motor driven by square wave is difficult to eliminate vibration and noise, and will produce out of step or overshoot due to torque fluctuation. In fact, when the fluctuation range of terminal load is large, servo motor should be selected even if it is basically running at low speed, because after considering the factors such as efficiency improvement, energy saving, control accuracy improvement and system stability increase, it will be found that the selection of servo motor with higher price increases the comprehensive cost.What problems should be paid attention to when using servo motor instead of stepper motor?1. In order to ensure that the control system does not change much, the digital servo system should be selected, and the original pulse control mode can still be used;2. Due to the strong overload capacity of the servo motor, the rated torque of the servo motor can be determined by referring to 1 / 3 of the rated output torque of the original stepping motor;3. Because the rated speed of the servo motor is much higher than that of the stepping motor, it is best to add a reducer to make the servo motor work close to the rated speed. In this way, the motor with smaller power can also be selected to reduce the cost.At present, the servo motor tends to evolve step by step:1. Small size and high efficiency: the latest permanent magnet materials and optimized motor design are adopted, so that the small motor can also produce great torque. When the motor of the same model is matched with different drivers, the maximum output torque is different; When the same volume motor adopts different winding forms and different pole numbers, the output power is also different;2. Anti impact torque: the maximum torque can reach several times of the rated torque;3. Adopt high-performance magnetic materials with high magnetic energy product;4. Both motor and driver can be equipped with temperature monitor.Can servo motor control replace stepper motor control1. Stepper motor and servo motor are control motors, which are mainly used for precision positioning control. Especially servo motor, CNC system commonly used motor. Generally, the controller driver servo (stepping) motor coupling lead screw pair guide rail do not need a reducer, because the servo and stepping speed can adjust the speed in a large range according to the pulse frequency.2. Servo motor is closed-loop control, and stepping is generally open-loop control. Servo precision, more expensive than stepping.3. Servo and stepping are used for positioning. For example, when moving at a certain speed from the origin to 10mm and then to 25mm, stop returning.4. Both are special motors, which can accurately control the speed. However, the principle of speed control is different: the servo motor is closed-loop control (completed through encoder feedback, etc.), that is, the speed of the motor will be measured in real time; The stepper motor is open-loop control. When a pulse is input, the stepper motor will turn a fixed angle, but the speed will not be measured.Difference between AC servo motor and stepping motorThe main difference between AC servo motor and stepper motor is that the stepper motor is open-loop (without encoder) control. If the load is too large or there is jamming, the step will be lost. The servo motor is closed-loop control (with encoder), there will be no step loss, and the stability and accuracy are higher.Stepping motor is a discrete motion device, which is essentially related to modern digital control technology. In the current domestic digital control system, stepping motor is widely used. With the emergence of all digital AC servo system, AC servo motor is more and more used in digital control system. In order to adapt to the development trend of digital control, stepping motor or all digital AC servo motor are mostly used as executive motor in motion control system. Although they are similar in control mode (pulse train and direction signal), there are great differences in service performance and application occasions. The performance of the two is compared.1、 Different control accuracyThe step angle of two-phase hybrid stepping motor is generally 3.6 ° and 1.8 °, and that of five phase hybrid stepping motor is generally 0.72 ° and 0.36 °. There are also some high-performance stepper motors with smaller step angles. For example, a stepping motor for slow wire walking machine tool produced by Sitong company has a step angle of 0.09 °; The step angle of the three-phase hybrid stepping motor produced by Berger Lahr in Germany can be set to 1.8 °, 0.9 °, 0.72 °, 0.36 °, 0.18 °, 0.09 °, 0.072 ° and 0.036 ° through the dial switch, which is compatible with the step angle of two-phase and five phase hybrid stepping motors.The control accuracy of the AC servo motor is guaranteed by the rotary encoder at the rear end of the motor shaft. Taking Panasonic all digital AC servo motor as an example, for the motor with standard 2500 line encoder, because the frequency quadrupling technology is adopted in the driver, the pulse equivalent is 360 ° / 10000 = 0.036 °. For the motor with 17 bit encoder, the motor rotates once every 217 = 131072 pulses received by the driver, that is, the pulse equivalent is 360 ° / 131072 = 9.89 seconds. Is 1 / 655 of the pulse equivalent of a stepping motor with a step angle of 1.8 °.2、 Different low frequency characteristicsStepper motor is prone to low-frequency vibration at low speed. The vibration frequency is related to the load condition and driver performance. It is generally considered that the vibration frequency is half of the no-load take-off frequency of the motor. This low-frequency vibration phenomenon determined by the working principle of stepping motor is very unfavorable to the normal operation of the machine. When the stepping motor works at low speed, damping technology should generally be used to overcome the phenomenon of low-frequency vibration, such as adding damper on the motor or subdivision technology on the driver.The AC servo motor runs very smoothly and will not vibrate even at low speed. The AC servo system has resonance suppression function, which can cover the lack of mechanical rigidity, and the system has frequency analysis function (FFT), which can detect the mechanical resonance point and facilitate the system adjustment.3、 Different torque frequency characteristicsThe output torque of stepping motor decreases with the increase of speed, and will decrease sharply at higher speed, so its maximum working speed is generally 300 600 rpm. AC servo motor is constant torque output, that is, it can output rated torque within its rated speed (generally 2000rpm or 3000rpm), and constant power output above rated speed.4、 Different overload capacityStepper motors generally do not have overload capacity. AC servo motor has strong overload capacity. Taking Panasonic AC servo system as an example, it has the ability of speed overload and torque overload. Its maximum torque is three times of the rated torque, which can be used to overcome the inertia torque of inertia load at the moment of starting. Because the stepping motor does not have this overload capacity, in order to overcome this inertia torque, it is often necessary to select the motor with large torque, and the machine does not need so large torque during normal operation, so the phenomenon of torque waste appears.5、 Different operation performanceThe control of stepping motor is open-loop control. If the starting frequency is too high or the load is too large, it is easy to lose step or stall. If the speed is too high when stopping, it is easy to overshoot. Therefore, in order to ensure its control accuracy, the problems of speed increase and speed decrease should be handled well. The AC servo drive system is a closed-loop control. The driver can directly sample the feedback signal of the motor encoder. It forms a position loop and a speed loop. Generally, there will be no step loss or overshoot of the stepping motor, and the control performance is more reliable.6、 Different speed response performanceIt takes 200 400 milliseconds for the stepping motor to accelerate from static to working speed (generally hundreds of revolutions per minute). The acceleration performance of AC servo system is good. Taking Panasonic MSMA 400W AC servo motor as an example, it takes only a few milliseconds to accelerate from static to its rated speed of 3000rpm, which can be used in control occasions requiring rapid start and stop.in summary
Principle of ULN2003 Driving Stepper Motor, ULN2003 Driving Stepper Motor Program
Stepping motor is an electromechanical component that converts electric pulse signal into angular displacement or linear displacement. The input of stepping motor is pulse sequence, and the output is corresponding incremental displacement or stepping motion. Under normal motion, it has a fixed number of steps per revolution; When doing continuous stepping motion, its rotating speed maintains a strict corresponding relationship with the frequency of input pulse, which is not affected by voltage fluctuation and load change. Because the stepping motor can be directly controlled by digital quantity, it is particularly suitable to use microcomputer for control.The stepping motor is a four phase stepping motor, which is powered by unipolar DC power supply. As long as each phase winding of the stepping motor is energized according to the appropriate sequence, the stepping motor can rotate step by step. Fig. 1 is a schematic diagram of the working principle of the four phase reactive stepping motor.At the beginning, switch sb is powered on, SA, SC and SD are disconnected, phase B magnetic pole is aligned with No. 0 and 3 teeth of rotor, at the same time, No. 1 and 4 teeth of rotor are staggered with the magnetic poles of phase C and D windings, and No. 2 and 5 teeth are staggered with the magnetic poles of phase D and a windings. When switch SC is powered on and Sb, SA and SD are disconnected, the rotor rotates due to the action of the magnetic line of force of phase C winding and the magnetic line of force between teeth 1 and 4, and the magnetic poles of teeth 1 and 4 and phase C winding are aligned.Teeth 0 and 3 are staggered with phase A and B windings, and teeth 2 and 5 are staggered with the magnetic poles of phase A and D windings. By analogy, if the four phase windings a, B, C and d supply power in turn, the rotor will rotate in the directions of a, B, C and D. Four phase stepping motor can be divided into three working modes: single four beat, double four beat and eight beat according to the different power on sequence. The step angle of single four beat is equal to that of double four beat, but the rotational torque of single four beat is small. The step angle of the eight beat working mode is half of that of the single four beat and the double four beat. Therefore, the eight beat working mode can not only maintain a high rotating torque, but also improve the control accuracy.The power on sequence and waveform of single four beat, double four beat and eight beat working modes are shown in Figure 2. A, B and C respectively:ULN2003 stepper motor driver#include《reg52.h》//unsigned char IRCOM[]=0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x10,0x10;unsigned char zhuangtai=0;unsigned char code F_ Rotaion[4]=0x03,0x05,0x0d,0x09;void delay(uchar delay)uchar i;for(delay;delay》0;delay--)for(i=123;i》0;i--)/*void delay1(int ms)uchar y;while(ms--)for(y=0;y《250;y)_nop_();_nop_();_nop_();_nop_();*/void moto()unsigned char i;for(i=0;i《4;i)P0=F_Rotaion[i];delay(500);void nmoto()unsigned char i;for(i=3;i》=0;i--)P0=F_Rotaion[i];delay(500);void stopmoto()P0=0x00;void yunxing()if(zhuangtai==0)stopmoto();else if(zhuangtai==1)moto();else if(zhuangtai==2)nmoto();void jude()if(P3==0xef)zhuangtai=0;else if(P3==0xdf)zhuangtai=1;else if(P3==0xbf)zhuangtai=2;main()/*IE=0x81;TCON=0x01;*/P1=0x00;P3=0xff;jude();yunxing();/*void IR_IN()interrupt 0uchar j,k,N=0;EX0=0;delay(15);if(IRIN==1)EX0 =1;return;while(!IRIN)delay(1);for(j=0;j《4;j)for(k=0;k《8;k)while(IRIN)delay(1);while(!IRIN)delay(1);while(IRIN)delay(1);N;if(N》=30)EX0=1;return;IRCOM[j]=IRCOM[j]》》1;if(N》=8)IRCOM[j] = IRCOM[j] | 0x80;N=0;if(IRCOM[2]!=IRCOM[3])EX0=1;return;if(IRCOM[0]!=0x00)EX0=1;return;IRCOM[4]=IRCOM[2]&0x0F;IRCOM[5]=IRCOM[2]》》4;play();beep();EX0=1;
Controlling a Stepper Motor with a Siemens S7 1200
Controlling a stepper motor with a Siemens S7 1200The inputs on the stepper driver module are optical isolators, in other words, LEDs. The manufacturer provided connections to both sides of the input, but you can tie one side to 5V (from the S7) as indicated on the driver module silk-screen writing. To actuate the control signal the S7 provides a logic low, 0V, or ground to the other input. Your control signal is in effect providing power to turn on the internal LED which passes the control signal through optically while maintaining electrical isolation. If 5 volts in unavailable 24 vdc could be used with a 2.2K ohm resistor in line to limit the LED current to about 10 mA. Also you may vary the parameters to accommodate the output choices available from the S7. The goal is to provide about 10 mA through the opto-isolator to turn the LED on and off under your control. Mechanical relay outputs for the S7 PLC will not work though because relay outputs can bounce a few times in a millisecond and the driver will interpret that as multiple motor steps. Solid state outputs will work. Digital outputs are the most common method— — — — — —How does this motor work?I think the motor's rotor is a permanent magnet. The motor is probably a brushless DC motor operated as a stepper motor. You can probably operate the motor with a 6 volt battery or even less if you are not trying to turn an antenna or anything else. If you look carefully, you will probably find that two of the four wires from the motor are connected to the same terminal. Call that terminal C and the other two A and B. To operate the motor, connect terminal C to the minus terminal of the battery. Connect terminal A to the plus terminal of the battery. The motor's rotor may or may not turn to line up with the pair of coils that have been energized. Disconnect A and connect B to the plus terminal of the battery. The motor's rotor should turn 1/4 turn to line up with the other pair of coils. Next connect C to the plus terminal and A to the minus terminal of the battery. The motor should rotate another quarter turn. Then disconnect A and connect B for another quarter turn. Make the original C-minus and A-plus connection to complete one rotation. Edit-1 I agree with Hankm, but you can not connect that way with only 3 terminals. You need to cut one of the wires of the two that are connected to the same terminal and connect it to a fourth terminal. You will then have N and S wires connected to opposite ends of the N and S pairs of coils and E and W wires connected to the E and W pairs of coils. That will allow you to connect N-pos / S-neg, then N&E-pos / S&W-neg etc. for 8 steps as listed.— — — — — —Stepper Motor Power SupplyStepper Motor Control - one step at a timeThis program drives a unipolar or bipolar stepper motor. The motor is attached to digital pins 8 - 11 of the Arduino.The motor will step one step at a time, very slowly. If wired correctly, all steps should be in the same direction.Use this also to count the number of steps per revolution of your motor, if you do not know it. Then plug that number into the oneRevolution example to see if you got it right.— — — — — —Drive stepper motor from PiIt does sound like the most likely explanation is indeed that the L293D overheated when trying to drive the larger stepper.We make a small control board called PicoBorg which is rated for 2A and is capable of driving a single 5-wire or 6-wire stepper motor, perfectly suited for driving your larger stepper motor.The specification, FETs used and circuit diagram can be found here. The example software provided here includes code for driving stepper motors, with a short explanation here, and even a practical use example called FedPet— — — — — —Why and when to use a gearbox with a stepper motorStepper motors are known for their accurate positioning capabilities and high torque delivery at low speeds, but they require careful sizing to ensure the motor matches the load and application parameters, to minimize the possibility of lost steps or motor stalling. Adding a gearbox to a stepper motor system can improve the motor's performance by decreasing the load-to-motor inertia ratio, increasing torque to the load, and reducing motor oscillations. One cause of missed steps in stepper motor applications is inertia. The ratio of the load inertia to the motor inertia determines how well the motor can drive, or control, the load - especially during acceleration and deceleration portions of the move profile. If the load inertia is significantly higher than the motor inertia, the motor will have a difficult time controlling the load, and overshoot (advancing more steps than commanded) or undershoot (missing steps) can occur. A very high load-to-motor inertia ratio can also cause the motor to draw excessive current and stall. One way to reduce the inertia ratio is to use a larger motor with higher inertia. But that means higher cost, more weight, and trickle-down effects on other parts of the system such as couplings, cables, and drive components. Instead, adding a gearbox to the system reduces the load-to-motor inertia ratio by the square of the gear ratio. Another reason to use a gearbox with a stepper motor is to increase the torque available to drive the load. When the load is driven by a motor-gearbox combination, the gearbox multiplies the torque from the motor by an amount proportional to the gear ratio and the efficiency of the gearbox. But while gearboxes multiply torque, they reduce speed. (This is why they are sometimes referred to as "gear reducers" or "speed reducers.") In other words, when a gearbox is attached to a motor, the motor must turn faster - by a factor equal to the gear ratio - to deliver the target speed to the load. And stepper motor torque generally decreases rapidly as speed increases, due to detent torque and other losses. This inverse relationship between speed and torque means it's only practical to increase speed by a certain amount before the motor is unable to deliver the required torque (even when multiplied by the gear ratio). But speeding up the motor does have a benefit. The additional speed required by the motor when a gearbox is installed means the motor operates outside its resonant frequency range, where oscillations and vibrations can cause the motor to lose steps or even stall. In addition to ensuring the gearbox has the correct torque, speed, and inertia values, it's important to choose a high-precision, low-backlash gearbox - especially when connecting the gearbox to a stepper motor. Recall that stepper motors operate in an open-loop system, and backlash in the gearbox degrades the system's positioning accuracy, with no feedback to monitor or correct for positioning errors. This is why stepper applications often use high-precision planetary gearboxes, with backlash as low as 2 to 3 arcminutes. And some manufacturers offer stepper motors with harmonic gears that can exhibit zero backlash under most application conditions.
Problem with Stepper Motor Not Landing on Same Spot
In addition to Zebonaut's post, we have also seen more esoteric behaviour driving steppers:1. Will the Stepper Motor 17HS3401 work fine with the TMC2130 driver? Or is the driver chip going to burn? Are they compatible?Higher operating voltages translate to higher stepping rates (and higher peak RPM, higher torque at higher RPMs). If you operate the motor from 3.12V, you will get the rated torque at 0 RPM (aka holding force), but performance at any speed will be poor. Since the TMC2130 driver is a constant current PWM driver, higher voltages (up to the rated voltage of the TMS2130 and any filter caps/etc) will produce better motor performance. The TMS2130 chip may get hotter (due to the internal LDO to drive internal circuitry).For most applications you will be fine with 12V.Additional simplified explanation: The higher voltages are needed to quickly change the current flow in the motor coils.2. Which stepper motor should be enough to move a water valve and for the TMC2130 driver?This is not how you make a simple hydraulic linear fluid valve, but one that is precision controlled to your specs.In order to make it linear, you need to know the torque transfer function might not be position-dependent with ageing on the valve or water pressure. But you do need to control torque with a motor. The best way is to use current to control the motor torque limit, but you need to define position, velocity and acceleration as ther emay be some backlash. You can attempt to measure it and then do the same for your stepper motors vs voltage or current limit then define a,v,x transfer functions. To allow cogging with low torque limit, recal is needed to home position. Full Steps can be used.3. What is "idle current reduction" used for on a CNC stepper motor driver?They will reduce the power to the steppers after they have been idled for a set period of time.. This will decrease heat and increase the life of the system. Depending on what you are doing you would not use this feature. If you plan on leaving your machine on long periods of time it would be good option. Most hobbyist turn their machines off when they are done running. It would be better going with gecko controller if you have the money.4. Conserving battery life in a stepper motor circuitYou may be a little confused.The intent of connecting the enables to the micro is so you can turn off the motors when you are not repositioning. That is, the motors should hold position by means of the detent torque of the motors themselves and consume no power while stationary.That of course assumes the motors will hold position when unpowered. The mechanism should be balanced appropriately to allow for that.In order to do that you would really need independent control over both motors. The up down motor only needing to be powered briefly at the end of each horizontal scan. As such, you would need two IO pins for enables and four pins for the winding control pins. (Though since you are only running one motor at a time, you can get away with two pins for this.)simulate this circuit - Schematic created using CircuitLabHOWEVER: A bigger issues you will face is the 293 is not suitable for running things at 5V. The device can not drive close enough to the rails to provide your required drive voltage. See this cross-post5. How to run stepper motor at its maximum speedThe speed of the stepper motor (assuming you measure it in RPM) will depend on many factors. I am not sure how the "30 step size at 7V" you mention is relevant.IMHO, the most important parameters are1) physical parameters of motor (steps per revolution, rated voltage, motor intetia)2) Load on the motor3) software implementationNormally you should not be able to affect 1( if you are looking like most arduino's developers you should be looking at things like this. i.e. 200 steps per revolution, 5-12VDC and a few tens to hundreds of g*cm^2 or motor inertia.) or 2 (although with higher loads lower velocities can be achieved, normally you select the motor based on the load and not vice versa).Therefore you are left with Software implementation. Things here can get messy very quickly depending on how experienced you are and what you want to do. e.g. The arduino Stepper library is simple and you can set parameters but it is blocking (i.e. you can not do anything else until movement is completed, or interrupts are used). If you want to get your hands dirty (and your head messed up ;-/ ) you can looks at My experience is that normally you can get up to 150 [rpm] easily. Theoretically you should be able to go higher but the uC should be doing pretty much nothing else.
What Is the Maximum Current at Which I Can Drive My Stepper Motor?
Based on what can be gleaned from the website you linked you ought not to exceed the phase current specified. This is how I see but if you can find proper data sheets, they might tell a different story.Firstly look at the torque-speed curve (linked on the page): -If you do the math, you'd calculate that the maximum mechanical output power is about 1 watt (100 rpm and 0.1 N.m 1.047 watts). This is about the same at 200 rpm ( 200rpm and 0.06 N.m 1.26 watts). At 400 rpm output power is 0.837 watts hence, you can see the max output power is 1.26 watts.With a coil current of 0.31 amps per phase and a coil resistance of 38.5 ohms (as stated), the power (heat generated not mechanical power) is 0.31^2 x 38.5 watts 3.7 watts and this means your stepper motor can be running quite hot. Having said that, this "apparent" inefficiency (some simplification and assumptions made here) of about 25% will not be at optimum mechanical output. At optimum power output ( I reckon about 100rpm), the power in will be about 2.1 watts assuming a peak efficiency of about 60%. This is about "normal" for steppers of this type.So, if you are always going to be running about 100 rpm, the current into the coils will be lower than 0.31 amps BUT, the details in the link are really unclear about this so caution should be taken.Conclusion - I don't think you can dare run the coils at more that 0.31 amps based on what the specification says. I recommend finding out more about the device. Try looking at one from a regular supplier i.e. one that has a proper pdf data sheet and deciding what information that data sheet provides that this one doesn't• Related QuestionsStepper motor is heating up?What kind of steppr driver are you using? Setting the current limit with the power supply is a bad idea - it's not designed to do that, unless you are using a lab supply! It would be a beter idea to invest in a proper chopper driver that uses a PWM drive on top of the actual stepping to set the current through the coils, and then use a properly-sized power supply. There should be a way to set the drive current with either a software seting or a trimmer pot. At any rate, the motor torque is determined by the coil current, and you will need to turn it up until it doesn't skip steps. At high currents you may also need to cool the motor. The drive transistors will certainly need a good heatsink, but they should disspate less heat than the motor. Edit: Chris remided me of another very important advantage of chopper controllers: driving the inductive motor windings. Inductive coils will try to resist changes in current flow. As a result, when the motor steps, the coil current takes some time to 'ramp up'. If you want to step very quickly, you need to use a high drive voltage to so that the coil currents will ramp up faster. This means that you need to use regulators on each coil. Chopper controllers do this for you, and all you need to do is set the desired max coil current. Chopper controllers can generally also microstep the motors, interpolating the coil currents to hold the rotor between steps. If you use the proper controllers, then you can get away with cranking the supply voltage up to 24 or even 36 volts for better performance------Why connect a 35 V decoupling capacitor to stepper motor driver when using only a 9 V DC supply?Running capacitors near the voltage rating really reduces the life. Derating the capacitor is a good way to increase your MTBF (mean time between failures). This is especially true of electrolytic caps and film caps. Another aspect is surge protection. Tantalum caps do not tolerate any (or very little) voltage above the rated voltage, and they generally explode if exposed to a higher voltage value. Electrolytic caps are designed to "let the smoke out" but can still contain caustic or dangerous chemicals.A third aspect is that capacitors will change characteristics as they go above the rated temperature. As the capacitor gets hot, its maximum voltage may decrease leaving less room for error. If you run a 5V cap at 5V, but the temperature of your board goes up to 125C, your cap may only tolerate 3V and explode (burst, fail, etc). Some capacitor types actually require derating above certain temperature thresholds, for example a 16V tantalum cap running at the afformentioned 125C will need to be increased to 20V or more, since the cap won't tolerate more than 10.7V at higher temperatures.And last (that I have anyway) is that as capacitors age (especially electrolytic ones) they can start to break down and lose capacitance. So generally the rule is to multiply the required voltage 2-3 times. So if you are running a cap between 5V lines, use a cap that is 10V-15V rated. Special care must be taken when working with super-caps though, as typically they won't tolerate more than 2.5V and it is better to think of them as a slow-discharge battery rather than a cap, but depending on the cap, the same derating rules may apply in high temperature applications------Generating motivation for an incoming 14 year-old IB studentI like some aspects of Gerhard's answer, but not the whole thing.I think you should start by furthering your non-math relationship with Mark. For example, watch a movie together that you would both enjoy, or go see a political debate together. Or make a visit to Best Buy together to see what new products there are (with the understanding that nothing will be bought). Just something that would be fun for both of you.When the moment is right (and you'll know when it is), ask him how he feels about his math refresher course. Find out what he likes most and least about math. Now you whip out some paper and a pencil, and you check what his level is in a topic he said he liked. (If he said he doesn't like anything, geometry is probably a safe choice.) Ask him some questions that give him an opportunity to think a little bit, but make sure he doesn't get stuck.The idea here is for the two of you to do some math together, in a low key way, and for him to get intrinsic enjoyment out of it, without it being part of any particular academic program. It could be something that would be of no usefulness for what he's going to do in the fall. Just something he finds intriguing and satisfying.Hopefully you'll be able to do some math together each time you get together, and a tutoring relationship will evolve naturally.You might also want to take a look at what they're doing in the refresher course -- he might be better off not doing it. You won't know until you get an idea what they're doing------How do you drive a stepper motor with an L9110 driver module? closedThe Arduino Stepper class does not use PWM. So you don't need to use PWM pins if that Stepper class is all you want to use.To understand if you will fry it, try to find it's datasheet.One I downloaded (I don't know from where) is not the manufacturers, but says:You should be able to avoid one way to damage it by keeping its input voltage well under 12V.The things that will cause that driver board to fry are:It is very unlikely that the Arduino will be damaged providing it is only connected to ground and the A-1A, A-1B, B-1A and B-1B pins the way you have described in your question.Do not connect any Arduino pins to the motor drivers VCC. Before driving the motor, I recommend connecting some LEDs (with resistors) across the outputs, in both polarities. Then write and test a simple program to see that everything works. Keep things simple, and don't try using PWM, just use digital output on GPIO pins.There are lots of examples on the stepper sequence to drive the pins.Start with the simplest, and drive it by 'hand' using four digitalWrites for each row:1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1and see if the LEDs are working as expected.I would start with a lowish voltage, less than the motor rating, to see if anything moves. Once you know it is all working for the simple case, you can try other stepper patterns. You could use the Arduino Stepper class which uses 'half-stepping'. You might also try using other libraries.You might even try your hand at writing microstepping code using PWM (when all four pins will need to be PWM pins).------Driving a dual axis with one stepper motor closedThe nested shafts have been addressed by @DaveTweed, this answer addresses another issue you might face if using a stepper motor.Unless you have a rotary encoder also incorporated, any stepper would miss steps occasionally and your Arduino code would have no way of knowing, so misalignments and return to zero errors will happen if you use steppers.The simplest alternative approach might be to drive a servo meshed with gearing on the outside of the shaft for the short arm, using Arduino's Servo library, with servo.write(0) for MSL and servo.write(180) for service ceiling. Calculate the gear ratio required for driving the short arm through the angle you need and attach a suitable gear head to the servo horn.Here is another approach you could try:Open up a hobby servo motor or several different ones, and check whether the last gear stage has teeth all the way around (some don't). If it does, a quick check should tell you the gearing ratio of each gear pair. Drive the shorter arm from the outside of the shaft as above by picking a suitable gear for the required throw, while driving the inner hand from the servo's actual DC motor itself or one of the prior gear stages. That way, coding for it remains simple, at the cost of some mechanical messing around.A multi-turn sail-winch servo might be a better choice than a regular hobby servo. Say 1.5 full rotations on the short arm (15k feet, since service ceiling is only 13.5k feet), and use one of the other gears of appropriate ratio for the longer arm.Edit Look for K&S Thin Wall Brass Tube, 1 mm OD, on eBay and elsewhere.------A powerful pull/rotate device that provides a certain (controllable) force?Modern motor control offerings are able to control position, velocity, and torque (force).Stepper motors give you good position control, moderate velocity control, and really poor torque control since they pass between pole location and have highly variable torque output.A brushed DC, brushless DC, AC induction, or best AC permanent magnet servos can offer extremely precise control in all of these areas.Without knowing you application it is hard to recommend the "best" motor, but in general, DC brushed and brushless servo motors can be purchased relatively inexpensively and are easy to find in the 10W to 1kW range. AC induction motors (with a position control VFD) are very common and while they offer poor position control compared to other options, they are easily in power ranges from 100W to 1000kW. AC servos are king when it comes to dynamic control, power density, and availability. They can be easily found in power ranges from 50W to 30kW.Looking at torque, Stepper motors have very high stall torque at low speeds. DC motors offer little torque at very low speeds and are best mated with a gearbox or made significantly oversized for the application. AC servos offer nearly flat torque response for their entire speed range.In terms of cost, expect a closed loop system to run 2-3x (or more) beyond the cost of open-loop motor control. Closed loop is really necessary if you want to accurately control position or velocity with anything other than a stepper motor. Feel free to expand on your requirements so we can help you pick the best solution for your application.Source: I am an industrial controls engineer with a focus in motion control. Hobby robotics guy.
NEMA17 Stepper Motor Not Turning, but Making Very Little Noise [closed]
I do not have the "reputation" to comment.....but, are the grounds (12-volt ground and Raspberry Pi ground) connected together? They must be!1. What is "idle current reduction" used for on a CNC stepper motor driver?you propose when you are taking it to the recycle middle? recycled right into a lighter weight of oil. in an engine, some is going as "blow by applying" and gets wiped out interior the cylinder. or if the seals, gaskets and sealed bearings are failing, then some can migrate into the coolant device, and additionally basically leak out onto the floor, or whilst an oil substitute is complete by applying somebody who does not care relating to the ambience, the oil finally ends up finally the two interior the floor>floor water furnish, or lakes and streams, and from there into the nutrients chain, so finally, interior the little organisms that are eaten by applying the bigger ones, and so directly to the little fish that are eaten by applying the bigger fish, and someplace alongside the line positioned on our table at dinner. rather lots used oil, finally ends up returned interior us one way or yet another... controlling us very resembling that "oil" on the "X-data" gee contemplate whether that replaced right into a metaphor2. What is stepper motor binding? (When belts are too tight)I think the RepRap wiki is using the word "binding", which translates to "stick together or cause to stick together in a single mass" (from Google dictionary), to indicate that some sort of friction is experienced (as you experience when things are sticking together).When there is too much tension in the belt, pulleys and bearings experience a larger radial force stressing the balls of the bearings and pulley shafts. This causes extra friction for the stepper motor to overcome (as the friction force, tangential, is related to the radial force); this means that the stepper has to work harder and can skip steps (for more insight please read below). While ball bearings are used to reduce friction (opposed to a bush bearing), each ball has a little friction from a couple of sources according to this reference:The sources of this friction are: slight deformation of the rolling elements and raceways under load, sliding friction of the rolling elements against the cage and guiding surfaces. These effects are generally captured in a single friction coefficient called "". The relation between friction force (tangential) and bearing loading (radial) is written by $$P_friction=P_load times mu$$ so the higher the belt tension ($P_load$), the higher the frictional force ($P_friction$), the harder the stepper has to work.3. automated parking system (sir sensor stepper motor) [duplicate]When you use delay(), your code stops and dont check anything at all until the delay is over, if you want to check for sensors during a timer, you have to use millis()There is a lot of documentation and tutorials you can find to replace delay with millis when you know what you are searching for4. Extruder stepper motor problem, what can be wrong?Your controller board probably requires calibration.It sounds like, maybe, the extruder's stepper motor is not receiving sufficient current, to make it turn. Or, somewhat confusingly, maybe the stepper is receiving too much current, and overheating. You do not say which controller board you are using, but regardless, there should be an adjustable potentiometer on the board, next to each of the stepper drivers, or on the stepper driver daughter boards. Like so,This potentiomenter adjusts the reference voltage used to control the stepper motor. From this reference voltage, and the resistance of the stepper coils, one can determine the current, which is used to drive the stepper motor. For the stepper driver of the extruder, you could try turning this adjustable potentiometer slightly, in order to provide more current to the stepper, in turn to provide sufficient torque such that the motor is able to turn. Or, less current to stop the stepper from overheating.The adjustments can be made whilst the power is on, but a non-ferrous (i. .e. plastic) screw driver should be used, so as to avoid short circuits. Also care needs to be taken, when turning the potentiometer, as they have been known to just fall apart whilst being turned. If you are paranoid, then make micro adjustments with the power turned off, and then turn back on to check the behaviour. Note: it should go without saying that one should never disconnect a stepper whilst the power is on, as both the driver and the stepper motor may be irrevocably damaged.The photo above is taken from POTs Calibration - RAMPS 1.4.If a POT is set too high then the associated stepper driver will tend to overheat and go into over-temperature thermal shutdown (to prevent damage to its components). The first sign of overheating is erratic stepper motor behavior. Typically, this can be recognized by the sounds of the stepper motor suddenly losing power (thermal shutdown). If no load or movement is required of the motor, it is hard to detect whether it is over-powered as the driver is barely producing any heat. andConversely, if the POT is set too low, the stepper motor can enter an underpowered state. This can be recognized by a lack of holding torque and a stepper motor that is skipping steps because the necessary movement requires a higher power demand than the POT setting allows for.In addition to the possibility of the stepper motor over heating, it could be possible that the stepper driver is overheating, although the symptoms may be different, to those that you are experiencing. Regardless, you may still find it advantageous to cooler the controller/driver board with a fan that is always on (not temperature controlled).RigidWiki - Stepper Driver Adjustment, which goes into further detail about the adjustment of the potentiometers, that I outlined above, as well as the reference voltage and the adjustment thereof. RepRap Wiki - RepRapPro Setting Motor Currents describes a different controller to yours, but goes into the process of adjustment, and description of the reference voltage (which is applicable to all boards):The wiper on each potentiometer generates a DC voltage that is sent to the chip. This is the reference voltage; it defines how much current the stepping motor driver chip supplies to the motor. The bigger the reference voltage (VREF), the higher the current (A) that the chip will send to the motor. For most NEMA14 motors, the current maximum is 1A, but this will generally cause it to get warm, so a setting of 750mA is recommended. For NEMA17 motors, depending on size, the limit on current is generally between 1.3A and 1.7A. If you drive stepper motors with more current than they were designed for, the motor will get hot, and may be damaged.Pololu - A4988 Stepper Motor Driver Carrier with Voltage Regulators - this is a very common stepper driver. MyHomeFab - DRV8825 Adjust Stepper Current goes into the adjustment of the reference voltage, for the commonly used DRV8825, which is an alternative to the popular A4988.This thread, about non-actuating steppers, may also be useful, Motors, which mentions setting the trimpots and points the OP to RepRap Wiki - Pololu stepper driver board, which, in turn, refers to this thread, Strange stepper behavior and this video, video-2012-02-02-16-37-26.mp4, which describes a jitter in the stepper behaviour.
Know About Stepper Motor
An overview of stepper motorCarl-Peter Edmund Moriz Forster (born 9 May 1954, in London), is an English-born German businessman. Forster was the group Chief Executive of Tata Motors between January 2010 and 9 September 2011.Born in London, Forster was raised in London, Bonn and Athens. His father was a German diplomat. Forster holds degrees in Economics from Bonn University, and in Aviation and Space Technology from Technical University of Munich.Extruder stepper motor problem, what can be wrong?Your controller board probably requires calibration.It sounds like, maybe, the extruder's stepper motor is not receiving sufficient current, to make it turn. Or, somewhat confusingly, maybe the stepper is receiving too much current, and overheating.You don't say which controller board you are using, but regardless, there should be an adjustable potentiometer on the board, next to each of the stepper drivers, or on the stepper driver daughter boards. Like so,This potentiomenter adjusts the reference voltage used to control the stepper motor. From this reference voltage, and the resistance of the stepper coils, one can determine the current, which is used to drive the stepper motor.For the stepper driver of the extruder, you could try turning this adjustable potentiometer slightly, in order to provide more current to the stepper, in turn to provide sufficient torque such that the motor is able to turn. Or, less current to stop the stepper from overheating.The adjustments can be made whilst the power is on, but a non-ferrous (i..e. plastic) screw driver should be used, so as to avoid short circuits. Also care needs to be taken, when turning the potentiometer, as they have been known to just fall apart whilst being turned. If you are paranoid, then make micro adjustments with the power turned off, and then turn back on to check the behaviour.Note: it should go without saying that one should never disconnect a stepper whilst the power is on, as both the driver and the stepper motor may be irrevocably damaged.The photo above is taken from POTs Calibration - RAMPS 1.4.andIn addition to the possibility of the stepper motor over heating, it could be possible that the stepper driver is overheating, although the symptoms may be different, to those that you are experiencing. Regardless, you may still find it advantageous to cooler the controller/driver board with a fan that is always on (not temperature controlled)Features of stepper motorDesignThere are two standard color options-Midnight Black  , a glossy black; and Twilight Silver   , a glossy silver-blue gradient. They both have micro-textured patterns in the glass.The flip-camera module is unique to the ZenFone6, with the only similar implementation being the Samsung GalaxyA80, which has a combination sliding-rotating main camera. A micro stepper motor and a magnetically-linked reduction gearbox power the automatic flip mechanism resulting in 2-degree microsteps. The magnetically linked gearbox prevents direct external actuation of the stepper motor, thus reducing the risk of damage to the stepper motor and internal mechanisms. The camera module casing is constructed of liquid metal, an amorphous metallic alloy similar to Liquidmetal, for its toughness, weight, high yield strength, and anti-wearing characteristics needed in a mechanical component subject to repeated stress. The flip camera is actuated by a geared micro-stepper motor. The 6.4-inch IPS LCD display is marketed as a "NanoEdge display" for the reduced bezel size. The Corning Gorilla Glass6 used on the display is curved using Nano Molding Technology. The back panel is formed from Gorilla Glass3, and features a capacitive fingerprint sensor.On one edge, the ZenFone6 features a function-customisable "Smart Key" with tactile indents, a volume rocker, and a power button-outlined in blue on the black models.HardwareThe ZenFone 6 is powered by Qualcomm's 2019 flagship Snapdragon 855 system on a chip at stock clock speeds. Configurations start with 6GB of LPDDR4X RAM and 64GB of UFS 2.1 storage, up to 12GB and 512GB respectively for the 30th Anniversary Edition.The device utilises a double-layer stacked motherboard design, which has also notably been used in Apple's iPhone lineup since the 2017 iPhone X. The PCB also makes use of Anylayer interconnect technology to increase PCB density. Asus claims the space saved is what enabled fitting a large 5000mAh battery in the chassis.SoftwareThe ZenFone 6 was debuted alongside ZenUI 6, a new version of Asus' customisations on the Android operating system, initially based on Android 10. The ZenFone 6 has software features specific to the flip camera, including an object-tracking video mode, and an auto-panorama mode, as well as manual camera angle controls. ZenUI 6 featured increased focus on single-handed operability, an overhauled notifications menu, dark mode, and reduced stock applications among other changes. Reviewers also noted that ZenUI 6 provided an experience closer to that of stock Android. Reviewers have also praised the relatively frequent software updates.
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