Introduction to Muslim Women,Bibliography of Muslim Women

Bibliography of muslim women

A major newspaper of India calls her, " of Pakistan's most acclaimed historians..."

Another major newspaper of Pakistan states, "...Jalal is revered globally as a historian of meticulous methods."

BooksJalal, Ayesha (1990). The state of martial rule: the origins of Pakistan's political economy of defence. Cambridge England New York: Cambridge University Press. .citation qquotes:"""""""'""'".mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free abackground-image:url("");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration abackground-image:url("");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription abackground-image:url("");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration spanborder-bottom:1px dotted; .cs1-ws-icon abackground-image:url("");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:12px;background-position:right .1em code.cs1-codecolor:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit; .cs1-hidden-errordisplay:none; .cs1-maintdisplay:none;color:#33aa33; .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflinkfont-weight:inherit

Jalal, Ayesha (1994). The sole spokesman: Jinnah, the Muslim League, and the demand for Pakistan. Cambridge Cambridgeshire New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN9780521458504. First published 1985.

Jalal, Ayesha (1995). Democracy and authoritarianism in South Asia: a comparative and historical perspective. Lahore, Pakistan: Sang-e-Meel Publications. ISBN9789693506297.

Jalal, Ayesha; Bose, Sugata (1997). Nationalism, democracy, and development: state and politics in India. Delhi New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN9780195639445.

Jalal, Ayesha (2000). Self and sovereignty individual and community in South Asian Islam since 1850. New York: Routledge. ISBN9780415220774.

Jalal, Ayesha (2008). Partisans of Allah: Jihad in South Asia. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN9780674047365.

Jalal, Ayesha; Bose, Sugata (2011). Modern South Asia: history, culture, political economy (3rd ed.). London New York: Routledge. ISBN9780415779432.

Jalal, Ayesha (2013). The pity of partition: Manto's life, times, and work across the India-Pakistan divide. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN9780691153629.

Jalal, Ayesha (2014). The struggle for Pakistan: a Muslim homeland and global politics. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN9780674052895.Chapters in booksJalal, Ayesha (1997), "Exploding Communalism: The Politics of Muslim Identity in South Asia" (PDF), in Bose, Sugata; Jalal, Ayesha (eds.), Nationalism, Democracy and Development: State and Politics in India, Delhi: Oxford University Press, ISBN9780195644425, retrieved 15 April 2018.CS1 maint: refharv (link)

Jalal, Ayesha (2009), "Freedom and equality: from Iqbal's philosophy to Sen's ethical concerns", in Kanbur, Ravi; Basu, Kaushik (eds.), Arguments for a better world: essays in honor of Amartya Sen | Volume II: Society, institutions and development, Oxford New York: Oxford University Press, pp.452469, ISBN9780199239979.CS1 maint: refharv (link)


Wali as agent of the bride of muslim women

Muslim scholars have held that in order for the nikah (marriage) to be valid, there must be consent of the bride, the groom and the bride's wali or male guardian. This view is held by most Muslim scholars, but the Hanafis hold that the wali's permission is not necessary for the nikah. The wali is typically the father or, failing that, a paternal grandfather or brother of the bride. Typically a father, brother or husband (a mahram) or paternal grandfather is wali mujbir, or if there is no Muslim relative, a qadi may function as wali. An order of succession of various male relatives is often spelled out by jurists. An example is this list written by Ibn Abd al-Wahhab: if the father is otherwise unavailable, guardianship should be assignedfirst to the woman's brother, then to the paternal grandfather than to the woman's son.... then it passes to the tribe of the brother, unless it is law/base/despicable, ... then the paternal uncle takes over, followed by his son, then other relatives in paternal relationships. ... Maternal relative only have a claim to marriage guardianship if there are not paternal relatives. ... the sultan or political leader may serve as the marriage guardian ... only if he is a just man ....

Thus the critical factor in selecting an alternative marriage guardian is the man's adherence to justice, not his political position.TypesThe Hanafi school of Islamic law is unique among madhhab (school of jurisprudence) in recognizing the validity of a marriage where the woman acts on her own behalf and is not represented by a male wali.

According to the founder of the Malaki school of fiqh, Malik ibn Anas, there are two kinds of custody or guardianship khassa (specific) and amma (general). Specific guardianship belongs to the patriarchal lineage father, grandfather, etc. (explained above). General guardianship "was connected completely with Islam, and every Muslim male". An example of amma guardianship is where a Muslim man arranges a marriage for a woman who does "not have a father, or other male family members".

At least in the Hanafi school of fiqh, there is a distinction between a Wali ijbar and a wali ikhtiyar. A wali ijbar is a guardian who is "given the power of force" and has the right to arrange the marriage of a woman "without her permission". A wali ikhtiyar does "not have the authority to force", and cannot arrange a marriage without the bride's permission. The marriage requires "a verbal answer" from the potential bride to go ahead.

The founder of the Hanbali school, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, believed that the wali ijbar was the right of the father or, if there was no father of a judge (similar to Malik's position), with other imams that the role of a wali ikhtiyar "could be taken by all kinds of wali", not necessarily a relative on the father's side of the family.

Other "guardians"While a husband or a mahram are not a wali, they also have "protector" status over women away from marriage. Husbands are sometimes referred to as "guardians" of their wives and families in English language sources. At least some Muslims point to Quranic verse Al-Tauba, 9:71 where "awliya", (plural of wali) is translated as "protector", and where protection (according to Ustadha Nasari) involves the presence of a mahram, (unmarriageable male relative) being present whenever an unmarried woman meets the opposite sex and for other issues. His permission is also required for travel in some Muslim countries. In Yemen, as of 2005, women are not legally permitted a passport without the approval of their wali, but are allowed to travel without permission once they have a passport. However law enforcement often disregard this freedom and "restrict a woman's right to travel if her guardian disapproves and reports her to the authorities." In 2013 according to Rothna Begum, of Human Rights Watch, women could not leave their house without her husband's permission, with a few emergency exceptions, such as taking care of ailing parents. In Saudi Arabia, as of 2016, "women may not apply for a passport without male guardian approval and require permission to travel outside the country." (Although according to Human Rights Watch, "male guardianship system remains largely in place" although women are now allowed "to secure their own ID cards" and divorced and widowed women are allowed family cards, and the requirement "that a woman bring a male relative to identify them in court" has been removed.)

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