How Do Humans Know How to Control Voluntary Muscles in the Body?

Voluntary muscle contraction is controlled by the central nervous system. Voluntary muscle contraction occurs as a result of conscious effort originating in the brain. The brain sends signals, in the form of action potentials, through the nervous system to the motor neuron that innervates several muscle fibers. In the case of some reflexes, the signal to contract can originate in the spinal cord through a feedback loop with the grey matter. Involuntary muscles such as the heart or smooth muscles in the gut and vascular system contract as a result of non-conscious brain activity or stimuli proceeding in the body to the muscle itself. Alpha motor neurons (-MNs) are large lower motor neurons of the brainstem and spinal cord. They innervate extrafusal muscle fibers of skeletal muscle and are directly responsible for initiating their contraction. Alpha motor neurons are distinct from gamma motor neurons, which innervate intrafusal muscle fibers of muscle spindles. While their cell bodies are found in the central nervous system (CNS), alpha motor neurons are also considered part of the somatic nervous system-a branch of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)-because their axons extend into the periphery to innervate skeletal muscles. An alpha motor neuron and the muscle fibers it innervates is a motor unit. A motor neuron pool contains the cell bodies of all the alpha motor neurons involved in contracting a single muscle. The brain: The motor areas are located in both hemispheres of the cortex. They are shaped like a pair of headphones stretching from ear to ear. The motor areas are very closely related to the control of voluntary movements, especially fine fragmented movements performed by the hand. The right half of the motor area controls the left side of the body, and vice versa. Two areas of the cortex are commonly referred to as motor: Primary motor cortex, which executes voluntary movements Supplementary motor areas and premotor cortex, which select voluntary movements. In addition, motor functions have been described for: Posterior parietal cortex, which guides voluntary movements in space Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which decides which voluntary movements to make according to higher-order instructions, rules, and self-generated thoughts. Buried deep in the white matter of the cerebral cortex are interconnected subcortical masses of cerebral gray matter called basal nuclei. The basal nuclei receive input from the substantia nigra of the midbrain and motor areas of the cerebral cortex, and send signals back to both of these locations. They are involved in motor control. They are found lateral to the thalamus. They are often called basal ganglia, but the word ganglion is best restricted to clusters of neurons outside the Central Nervous System (CNS).

1. Which bikes have 0% vibrations?

Practically, there is no bike with 0% vibration. Because the petrol/diesel engine works based on combustion and producing the energy to rotate the piston and thereby wheels.. Which means, cannot eliminate vibration entirely. But in the case of electrical bikes, this process is not that much heavy (rotation using motor) and since, vibration will be lesser than fuel operated bikes

2. How do wind turbines work?

LIke an electric fan in reverse. You plug a fan into a wall and the electric motor turns the blades and blows air. A turbine instead turns round n round because of the wind blowing on the blades and then generates electricity (generator is opposite of motor) that you could put back into the wall outlet

3. How can you get a smaller voltage from a DC power supply?

You can get a transformer to work on DC provided that the DC is varying (or pulsing) . Consider how the coil in a car steps up the 12VDC of a battery to thousands of volts for the spark plugs by pulsing DC through the primary of the coil.. Because the DC motor has a commutator its DC output will resemble that of a full wave rectifier. The variations in the DC will be passed to the secondary of the transformer. Despite feeding a transformer input with pulsating DC, the output of the transformer will be AC so you will need a full or half wave rectifier and it would also help to place a capacitor across the rectifier output to smooth the DC.. Also the power (E * I) input is the same as the output, Finally as current is supplied from your tiny generator (motor) that current flow will create a counter electromotive force. Simply, as you supply current from your generator it will get harder to turn the generator. Your generator might be turning in a slight breeze now only because there is zero load on it. Once you connect a load (transformer / led etc) you will find that it will take more effort (breeze) to turn the generator. Despite all of the above the step up conversion of the fullwave DC wo not be very efficient . Instead of a DC hobby motor as your generator try using a Servo / stepper motor instead. There is no commutator in these types of motors so you should be able to get an AC sine wave output which will be more efficient in stepping up with a transformer

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IGBT of Fuji Motor Electronic Equipment Technology
The IGBT technology of Fuji motor and electronic equipment technology has been commercialized since 1988 and has been supplied in the market so far. Figure 1-3 shows the development process and application technology of IGBT products from the first generation to the fifth generation. Epitaxial wafers are used in the first to third generation IGBT, and the characteristics are improved by optimizing life cycle control and refinement technology of IGBT. Then, the fourth and fifth generation products have achieved significant characteristic improvement through the transition from epitaxial wafer to FZ (floating zone) wafer. In this regard, the design policy of IGBT has changed greatly compared with the past.Firstly, the basic design idea of IGBT using epitaxial wafer (series products up to 600V of the third to fourth generation, called "breakdown type") is as follows. In order to realize the low-pass state voltage during IGBT conduction, a large number of carriers are injected from the collector side to fill the IGBT with high concentration carriers. In addition, the n-buffer layer specially set to maintain the high voltage forms a very thin n-layer, so as to realize the low-pass state voltage. In order to realize fast exchange, life cycle control technology aiming at the rapid disappearance of carriers filled in IGBT is also adopted (through these, low exchange loss (eoff) can also be realized). However, once the life cycle control technology is applied, even in the normal on state, due to the effect of this technology (the carrier transport efficiency decreases), there is a problem of increasing the on state voltage, which can be solved by further high carrier injection.In short, the basic design concept of IGBT using epitaxial wafer technology can be simply summarized as "high injection and low transmission efficiency". In contrast, IGBTs using FZ wafers (series after the fourth generation 1200V) adopt a reverse basic design to inhibit the injection of carriers from the collector side and improve the transmission efficiency by reducing the injection efficiency. In the above-mentioned design concept of IGBT using epitaxial wafer "high injection and low transmission efficiency", the carriers that are not easy to be injected are forcibly suppressed through the control of life cycle, which not only limits the improvement of characteristics, but also increases the standard deviation of on-state voltage characteristics through the control of life cycle, It is very disadvantageous to the large capacity required for parallel use with increasing requirements in recent years. The technology developed to overcome this problem is a new IGBT using FZ chip (NPT: non punch through (used from the fourth generation IGBT) / FS: field stop (used from the fifth generation IGBT) - IGBT). The IGBT does not adopt life cycle control. Its basic design idea is to control the impurity concentration of the collector (P layer), so as to inhibit the carrier injection efficiency. However, in order to realize the characteristics superior to the IGBT using epitaxial wafer, it is also required to realize more than one hundred for the 1200V high voltage resistant series IGBT μ M (the thickness of n-layer in NPT and fs-igbt using FZ wafer ≈ the thickness of chip (wafer). The thinner the thickness, the lower the on state voltage can be generated). In short, it is not too much to call the development of IGBT using FZ chip a challenge to chip thickness.Fuji electric and electronic equipment technology has solved these problems. Starting from the fourth generation 1200V series - IGBT, it has realized the commercialization of "s series" constructed by FZ chip NPT. In addition, 600V series technology with higher thickness requirements is further developed, and 600v-u2 series (fifth generation) is being commercialized. In addition, in 1200V series - the fifth generation "U Series", in order to improve the performance better than s series, NPT structure has been changed to FS structure.The so-called FS structure does not use the life cycle control technology. While following the basic design concept of "low injection and high transport efficiency" of carriers, an n buffer layer to maintain voltage is set on the FZ wafer, so as to realize the IGBT structure thinner than the NPT structure. Through this change, 1200v-u series realizes the low on state voltage characteristic better than s series, and completes its commercialization. In addition, this technology is also used in 1700V series high voltage withstand series, and is also starting to be commercialized.Figure 1-3 changes of Fuji motor electronic equipment IGBT application technologyIn addition, Fuji electric and electronic equipment technology is also refining the surface structure indispensable for the improvement of IGBT characteristics (IGBT is formed by multiple IGBT plates. Through refinement, the more plates, the more low on-state voltage can be realized). Up to the fourth generation products, the planar structure (the structure of planar IGBT) has been used to promote refinement, so as to improve the characteristics. However, starting from the fifth generation products - 1200 and 1700V series, the grooved IGBT technology slotted on the Si surface and constituting IGBT has broken the subtle technical barrier and achieved unprecedented characteristic improvement. Figure 1-4 shows the change of characteristic improvement of 1200V series.Figure 1-4 improvement of balance characteristics
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