Controller for a DC Motor for Moving 18 Cm Constantly

It looks like you are only using distance remaining as your control variable.You also need to use velocity, that is, rate of arrival of pulses, or number of pulses per sample cycle. You can then use that to calculate your required speed/deceleration rate and come to a halt where you desire, possibly even back driving the motor(s) to act as a brake if need be.

1. Limiting starting current of a small DC motor

What you need to correct this bad effect on your circuit is a flyback diode. It's a diode put in parallel of a motor, relay or any inductive load that create a voltage spike when power on (and so a current spike as well). In your comment you explain your worry about a short circuit because of that diode. This wo not append. The diode conduct the current only when the voltage across the pin are higher than a certain amount. During the voltage spike, this condition is trigger and then the current flow across the diode (the red arrow on the picture). But during the reste of the time, the diode wo not conduct.

2. how to increase DC motor speed range 9v with small supplied?

You can control the speed of your motor over a period of time, while the battery discharges, by controlling the motor speed with Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) and a controller chip. As long as the speed of the motor is less than the maximum speed the motor will be at with a full 9 volts applied to it, it should be possible. Example: The top speed of the motor at 9 volts is say, 1500 rpms. You design a control circuit to keep the motor at 900 rpm, over the discharge period of the battery. As the battery voltage decreases, the motor speed will tend to slow down. The controller can then compensate by changing the Pulse width and increase the speed back to 900 rpm. The control circuit (such as a PIC Microcontroller) will need to sample the motor speed, perhaps with a tachometer, and use this information to change the PWM signal to the motor. Good luck.

3. What happens when the voltage is dropped on a DC motor but the load remains the same? An example would be a golf cart that has batteries that u2018sagu2019 to 10-11v each. Would this overheat the motor, whatu2019s happening here?

Nothing happens.The motor can not overheat when less than the nominal current flows through it.It will just stop going uphill.When the motor totally stops, it is not advisable to send even reduced current through it, because no counter electromotive force will be generated by turning, so some heating might result.But then, who would be so dumb to continue pushing the 'go' pedal when the motor has come to a total standstill?.

4. How to make circuit to reverse dc motor direction with a 12v trigger wire

Peter Walker's and AnalogKid's solution to the question, Need a circuit to detect if something has gone from off-on or on-off, is also valid for this question.The timing diagram is nearly identical.AnalogKid's timer circuit 'Motor Trigger' is to be used with the value of C3 increased to 100F for a motor 'on' time of 10s.The trigger voltage (12V - engine on, 0V - engine off) is to be tapped from the D terminal of the vehicle alternator. The timer relay 'Motor' is to run the motor for 10s with its direction determined by the trigger relay K1

5. Capacitor for 5v dc motor?

DC motors do not normally need a capacitor. The only possible reason is that your power supply cannot supply enough current to start the motor and a capacitor stores enough energy to enable the motor to start. In that case the value depends on the supply and motor specs. If you run 2 DC motors on 10 volts, you have to put them in series. 470F 16 volts means that you cannot apply more than 16 volts DC to the cap without damage, and the capacitance is 470F Electrolytic caps are higher in value but are polarized, that is, the voltage can only have one polarity, the one marked on the cap. Reversing that will cause damage.

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Shunt DC Motor Controller Improvement
Shunt DC motor controller improvementSo this looks as if the circuit controls armature current?It controls armature voltage.would it be better if the winding current was controlled?Controlling armature current with an outer voltage or speed control loop would be better, but more complex.By "winding current" I suspect you mean field winding current as apposed to armature winding current. Controlling the field winding current would make the minimum operating speed about equivalent to the present maximum speed. Reducing the field current will increase the speed and reduce the torque capability. I doubt very much that is what you want.The above seem to be the only actual questions asked. The question seems to imply that you wish to improve the control scheme because the motor " runs slightly erratically." You have not actually described what aspect of motor performance is undesirable.Speed decrease with increased load is normal for a simple armature voltage control. Random speed variation with a steady load could be due to line voltage variation, other power quality issues, motor brush problems or a loose connection. Failure to start relably would like be a brush problem— — — — — —Can you use an AC switch with a DC motor?Just follow the ratings of the switch. Typically, the DC voltage rating is less than the AC voltage rating. Current ratings are normally the same— — — — — —What is an interpole in a DC motor?Thanks for A2A.Purpose of Interpole in DC MachineFor understanding the role of Interpoles, we need to understand the effect of armature reaction in the DC Machine. The effect of armature mmf on the main field flux is to distort the main field flux and to reduce the net main field flux. The figure below, shows the effect of armature mmf on the main field flux. It is quite clear from the above figure that the flux at the location of Carbon Brush i.e. A, B and A are not zero and therefore an EMF will be induced in the coils undergoing commutation and will lead to the sparking. As we know that for better commutation, the coils short circuited by the brushes should have zero EMF induced in them. As the zero crossing of field flux is shifted due to armature reaction, the coils undergoing the commutation will have a net EMF induced in them. This induced EMF in the short circuited coil will delay the reversal of current in the short circuited coils and will result into poor commutation and sparking at the carbon brushes.The question arises how to resolve this issue?If we see the figure above, we observe that there is a net shift of zero crossing of net flux in the air gap by an angle Ɵ in the direction of rotation for Generator and opposite to the direction of rotation for Motor. So the cheap and easy solution shall be to shift the Carbon Brush at Zero Crossing of the air gap flux.Thus carbon Brush need to be shifted by an angle Ɵ from Geometrical Neutral Axis (GNA) in the direction of rotation for Generator and opposite to the direction of rotation for Motor.But this method of shifting the Carbon brush has a big disadvantage. What is that?As the Armature Reaction depends on the current flowing through the armature winding which in turn depends on the load current. Therefore as the loading of the DC Machine varies the angle Ɵ will also vary and therefore we need to continuously shift the Carbon Brushes. So we need to find a smart way.Again, looking back to the figure, if it could be possible to make the resultant or net air gap flux zero at GNA, then there would not have been any detrimental effect of armature reaction on commutation. Also, the existing flux at the GNA (at point C) is due to North Pole so we could use a South Pole (opposite of the pole which produced the imbalance at C) at C so that the net flux at C becomes Zero. Similarly at C' we can use a North Pole to make net flux Zero there. Okay, this will work fine but how t change the magnitude field strength of this newly installed poles at C and C'? Hmmmm. .We can use a winding on the newly installed poles at C and C' and connect that winding in series with armature winding so that the strength of field due to newly installed poles at C and C' varies proportionally will the loading of machine. Yes, this will work fine.So we can conclude our solution as,We will use Poles same as that of Main Poles ahead of GNA or Carbon Brush for Generator at the location of GNA or Carbon Brush and Poles same as Main Pole that of behind the GNA or carbon Brush for Motor at the location of GNA or Carbon Brush and will use winding on them and connect them in series with the armature winding as shown in figure below.The Poles used in our smart solution is called the Interpole. Interpoles are narrow poles placed at the GNA and fitted to the Yoke and also known as Commutating Poles or Compoles. For generator, the polarity of Interpoles must be same as that of main Pole ahead of it in the direction of rotation. For Motor, the polarity of Interpole must be same as that of Main Pole behind it. So I expect that you understand the purpose of Interpoles as you only designed it. But there is one more interesting role of Interpole.Interpole do not only nullify the effect of armature reaction but in addition, produces some extra mmf in the interpolar zone. This extra mmf in the interpolar zone induces rotational EMF in the short circuited coil undergoing commutation in such a direction to oppose the reactance voltage in the coil. Thus the resultant the resultant voltage in the short circuited coil becomes zero and the commutation is spark less.What is an interpole in a DC motor?
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