Building a Simple DC Motor

Read the battery datasheet. Those little 9 V consumer batteries with the snap on leads are not good for delivering this kind of power.Measure the battery voltage when connected to your motor, and you will probably find it is close to 0. This may be the case even if the battery measures about right when open circuit. Use a benchtop power supply. Something that can put out a few amps at 12 V should be good. Do not use a car battery because those are not current-limited. If you cause a short, the car battery will deliver enough current to melt or explode something. A benchtop supply with current limiting at a couple of amps should provide enough power, but be safe when the inevitable short happens.It is amazing that thing worked at all. Obvious problems:

1. What is magnetic interlocking in a synchronous motor?

The word interlock usually means to prevent something from happening. In this application I suspect it is describing a circuit that prevents application of the main field winding until the rotor has reached about 95% of synchronous speed. Recall that most synchronous machines start as induction motors using amortisseur windings. The damper windings get the motor started but they are not designed to operate the motor at full power for any length of time. Consequently, the interlock may also time out if the motor does not achieve synchronous speed within a certain amount of time.On the other hand, the word interlock means to join together. In a synchronous machine the rotor's magnetic field moves in lockstep with the stator's field. They are interlocked. Personally, I like to think of this a a rubber band. There is always a small torque dependent angle between the two fields. Don't overload a synchronous motor of this torque angle will be excessive and the motor will stall - the rubber band will break...FUN FACT: Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) should be programmed with software interlocks to ensure the proper motor starting sequence and to prevent the motor from other damage such as an excessive number of start without time for the amortisseur winding to cool.Regards,APDahlenWhat is magnetic interlocking in a synchronous motor?

2. Do you need an outboard motor if you have an Inboard motor?

LISTEN TO TRUNORTH! Run do not walk away from this deal. Sounds like the seller has removed the outdrive and is selling the boat as is. There are straight inboards - with a prop shaft and prop in a direct drive or through a v-drive or other transmission; they will steer with a rudder. There are inboard/outboard - an inboard motor and an outdrive unit with the prop that is connected to the drive through the transom; they steer by the outdrive moving to change the direction of the prop. And there are Outboard motors. Do not buy a used boat with out try it out! If you do not know about boating and boats take someone with you. There are many great deals on boats right now and there will be one that will meet your needs if you shop around. Good Luck - Boat Safe!

3. Controlling brushed motor speed with variable load with a PWM

Your idea is wrong and wo not work. But there is a very similar idea that will work."a brushed motor with a constant-voltage power supply, it will always rotate at about the same speed" No. If you load it a lot, it will slow down a lot. Your idea is to basically monitor the average voltage across the motor terminals and adjust the PWM so that a constant average voltage is applied to the motor in order to maintain constant speed with torque (this would also require monitoring the battery voltage as well). But this wo not maintain constant speed with torque. It will just maintain an ratio between battery voltage and average voltage applied to the motor as the battery voltage decreases as it is drained. Also, if this is your goal it's easier to just to measure the battery voltage directly and adjust the PWM accordingly. No need to measure the messy voltage across motor terminals. But motor speed will still change as torque changes. What you really want is to measure the motor's back-EMF (BEMF) and adjust the PWM to keep the BEMF constant. The BEMF is the voltage a motor generates when it is coasting. In other words, this is the voltage the motor generates when it is being back driven and acting as a generator. But now the question is, how do you measure the voltage across the motor while it is coasting coasting if you are driving it with a PWM waveform so it is not coasting?Well, first, you do not want to continuously being sampling the motor terminal voltage in an uncontrolled manner while PWM is happening because the drive voltage (when the switches are closed and sending current through the motor) are mixed in with the BEMF voltage (when the switches are open and current is not going through the motor)If you want to sample the BEMF while PWMing the motor you need to do the sampling when you know both HI side switches are open so that the motor is not being driven, but you want one LO side switch to be closed so that you are measuring with respect to GND.Your MCU may allow your PWM timer to trigger ADC samples so you can sample it directly and ignoring it when the motor current is not being forced through the motor and ignore it at all other times. Might need some RC filtering but not something like an LC. If you can not do this, there are less elegant work arounds like having the PWM signal drive interrupts that cause the ADC to take a sample. At worst, you could directly feed the PWM signal from an output pin directly back into an interrupt pin

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IGBT of Fuji Motor Electronic Equipment Technology
The IGBT technology of Fuji motor and electronic equipment technology has been commercialized since 1988 and has been supplied in the market so far. Figure 1-3 shows the development process and application technology of IGBT products from the first generation to the fifth generation. Epitaxial wafers are used in the first to third generation IGBT, and the characteristics are improved by optimizing life cycle control and refinement technology of IGBT. Then, the fourth and fifth generation products have achieved significant characteristic improvement through the transition from epitaxial wafer to FZ (floating zone) wafer. In this regard, the design policy of IGBT has changed greatly compared with the past.Firstly, the basic design idea of IGBT using epitaxial wafer (series products up to 600V of the third to fourth generation, called "breakdown type") is as follows. In order to realize the low-pass state voltage during IGBT conduction, a large number of carriers are injected from the collector side to fill the IGBT with high concentration carriers. In addition, the n-buffer layer specially set to maintain the high voltage forms a very thin n-layer, so as to realize the low-pass state voltage. In order to realize fast exchange, life cycle control technology aiming at the rapid disappearance of carriers filled in IGBT is also adopted (through these, low exchange loss (eoff) can also be realized). However, once the life cycle control technology is applied, even in the normal on state, due to the effect of this technology (the carrier transport efficiency decreases), there is a problem of increasing the on state voltage, which can be solved by further high carrier injection.In short, the basic design concept of IGBT using epitaxial wafer technology can be simply summarized as "high injection and low transmission efficiency". In contrast, IGBTs using FZ wafers (series after the fourth generation 1200V) adopt a reverse basic design to inhibit the injection of carriers from the collector side and improve the transmission efficiency by reducing the injection efficiency. In the above-mentioned design concept of IGBT using epitaxial wafer "high injection and low transmission efficiency", the carriers that are not easy to be injected are forcibly suppressed through the control of life cycle, which not only limits the improvement of characteristics, but also increases the standard deviation of on-state voltage characteristics through the control of life cycle, It is very disadvantageous to the large capacity required for parallel use with increasing requirements in recent years. The technology developed to overcome this problem is a new IGBT using FZ chip (NPT: non punch through (used from the fourth generation IGBT) / FS: field stop (used from the fifth generation IGBT) - IGBT). The IGBT does not adopt life cycle control. Its basic design idea is to control the impurity concentration of the collector (P layer), so as to inhibit the carrier injection efficiency. However, in order to realize the characteristics superior to the IGBT using epitaxial wafer, it is also required to realize more than one hundred for the 1200V high voltage resistant series IGBT μ M (the thickness of n-layer in NPT and fs-igbt using FZ wafer ≈ the thickness of chip (wafer). The thinner the thickness, the lower the on state voltage can be generated). In short, it is not too much to call the development of IGBT using FZ chip a challenge to chip thickness.Fuji electric and electronic equipment technology has solved these problems. Starting from the fourth generation 1200V series - IGBT, it has realized the commercialization of "s series" constructed by FZ chip NPT. In addition, 600V series technology with higher thickness requirements is further developed, and 600v-u2 series (fifth generation) is being commercialized. In addition, in 1200V series - the fifth generation "U Series", in order to improve the performance better than s series, NPT structure has been changed to FS structure.The so-called FS structure does not use the life cycle control technology. While following the basic design concept of "low injection and high transport efficiency" of carriers, an n buffer layer to maintain voltage is set on the FZ wafer, so as to realize the IGBT structure thinner than the NPT structure. Through this change, 1200v-u series realizes the low on state voltage characteristic better than s series, and completes its commercialization. In addition, this technology is also used in 1700V series high voltage withstand series, and is also starting to be commercialized.Figure 1-3 changes of Fuji motor electronic equipment IGBT application technologyIn addition, Fuji electric and electronic equipment technology is also refining the surface structure indispensable for the improvement of IGBT characteristics (IGBT is formed by multiple IGBT plates. Through refinement, the more plates, the more low on-state voltage can be realized). Up to the fourth generation products, the planar structure (the structure of planar IGBT) has been used to promote refinement, so as to improve the characteristics. However, starting from the fifth generation products - 1200 and 1700V series, the grooved IGBT technology slotted on the Si surface and constituting IGBT has broken the subtle technical barrier and achieved unprecedented characteristic improvement. Figure 1-4 shows the change of characteristic improvement of 1200V series.Figure 1-4 improvement of balance characteristics
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